The Twelve Days of Middle School Science. Day 1: Cell Theory (& structure, organelles & functions, processes). Cell Theory. 1. All organisms ( living things) are made of one or more cells. ( Unicellular or multicellular ) 2. The cell is the basic unit of all LIVING things.
Day 1: Cell Theory
(& structure, organelles& functions, processes)
(?)Quarks & Leptons Protons/ Neutrons/Electrons Atoms Elements Molecules Compounds Proteins, Sugars, Acids, Lipids, Minerals Cells (LIFE) Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems Biome Biosphere Earth Solar System Galaxy Local Group Galaxy Clusters Universe Multiverse?
*Note: There many TYPES of cells (skin, muscle, hair, sex, etc.,); these are the two categories that ALL cells fall under! It is the DNA within cells that controls what type of cell they will be.
*Cell Membrane: Outer cell lining for protection
*Cytoplasm: Jelly-like liquid that organelles float in
*Nucleus: “Control center” that contains organism’s DNA
Nuclear Membrane: encloses and protects nucleus; DNA can travel through to get to the ER
Nucleolus: Produces ribosomes
*DNA: The hereditary material of organisms
Chromosome: Thread-like structure of DNA that holds genes
*Vacuoles: Store nutrients and waste
*Mitochondria: Jelly-bean shaped producers of energy (ATP) for cell
*Ribosomes: Where proteins are made
*Endoplasmic Reticulum: Cell transportation system (rough=has ribosomes on top, smooth=no ribosomes)
*Golgi Apparatus/Body/Complex: “Packaging center” which stores, modifies and secretes proteins and lipids
Microtubules: protein filaments involved in cell movement, shape, and cell division (mitosis/meiosis).
Centrioles: contain microtubules and involved in cell division (animals only)
Lysosomes: responsible for intracellular digestion, “kamikazes”
* = KNOW THESECell Organelles
*Cell Wall: Gives plant cells shape and structure (rigidity), made of cellulose
*Chloroplast: Site where photosynthesis in plant cells occurs