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The Twelve Days of Middle School Science. Day 1: Cell Theory (& structure, organelles & functions, processes). Cell Theory. 1. All organisms ( living things) are made of one or more cells. ( Unicellular or multicellular ) 2. The cell is the basic unit of all LIVING things.

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the twelve days of middle school science

The Twelve Days of Middle School Science

Day 1: Cell Theory

(& structure, organelles& functions, processes)

cell theory
Cell Theory
  • 1. All organisms (living things) are made of one or more cells. (Unicellular or multicellular)
  • 2. The cell is the basic unit of all LIVING things.
    • Hierarchy of all matter:

(?)Quarks & Leptons  Protons/ Neutrons/Electrons Atoms Elements Molecules Compounds Proteins, Sugars, Acids, Lipids, Minerals  Cells (LIFE) Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organisms  Populations  Communities  Ecosystems  Biome Biosphere  Earth  Solar System  Galaxy  Local Group  Galaxy Clusters  Universe  Multiverse?

  • 3. All cells come from existing cells. (Mitosis=production of body cells or Meiosis=production of sex cells)

Two Classifications* of Cells

  • Prokaryotic Cells
    • 1st form of life
    • Have NO nucleus – DNA is free (called the “nucleloid”)
    • ONLY form Unicellular organisms (one-celled)
    • Example: Bacteria (e. coli, staph, salmonella)
  • Eukaryotic Cells
    • Evolved from prokaryotes
    • Have a nucleus with bundled DNA
    • Can form unicellular or multi-cellular organisms.
    • Example: Amoebas, plants animals, fungi, protists

*Note: There many TYPES of cells (skin, muscle, hair, sex, etc.,); these are the two categories that ALL cells fall under! It is the DNA within cells that controls what type of cell they will be.

cell organelles

Organelle & Function

*Cell Membrane: Outer cell lining for protection

*Cytoplasm: Jelly-like liquid that organelles float in

*Nucleus: “Control center” that contains organism’s DNA

Nuclear Membrane: encloses and protects nucleus; DNA can travel through to get to the ER

Nucleolus: Produces ribosomes

*DNA: The hereditary material of organisms

Chromosome: Thread-like structure of DNA that holds genes

*Vacuoles: Store nutrients and waste

*Mitochondria: Jelly-bean shaped producers of energy (ATP) for cell

*Ribosomes: Where proteins are made

*Endoplasmic Reticulum: Cell transportation system (rough=has ribosomes on top, smooth=no ribosomes)

*Golgi Apparatus/Body/Complex: “Packaging center” which stores, modifies and secretes proteins and lipids

Microtubules: protein filaments involved in cell movement, shape, and cell division (mitosis/meiosis).

Centrioles: contain microtubules and involved in cell division (animals only)

Lysosomes: responsible for intracellular digestion, “kamikazes”


Cell Organelles
  • What shape are the mitochondria?
  • How is the cell similar to a body system?
  • Is the animal cell an open or closed system? Why?
plant organelles
Plant Organelles

PLANT-SPECIFIC organelles:

*Cell Wall: Gives plant cells shape and structure (rigidity), made of cellulose

*Chloroplast: Site where photosynthesis in plant cells occurs


  • What are some similarities between plant and animal cells?
  • What do you notice about the vacuole of the plant cell?
  • Why do you think plants evolved to have cell walls and animals did not?
cellular processes
Cellular Processes
  • Respiration – the release of energy from sugar. Can be aerobic (with oxygen) or anaerobic (w/o oxygen—this is called fermentation)
  • **Photosynthesis**- process by which plants change light energy (sunlight) into chemical energy (sugar)
  • Mitosis – when cells split to create new body cells
  • Meiosis – when cells split to reproduce sex cells (ex: egg & sperm)
cellular processes cont
Cellular Processes, Cont.
  • Diffusion - Movement of molecules from an area of great concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
  • Osmosis– diffusion of water through cells
assessment homework
Assessment & Homework
  • Go to Ms. Cedillo’s website (8th Grade Science The Twelve Days of Middle School Science)
  • Look under Day 1 for these notes and other resources
    • STUDY cell structure & organelle functions – we will have an assessment over this tomorrow