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Review of Ionic Compounds. In an ionic compound, One element [ non-metal ], can strongly pull electrons away from other element and become a negative ion [a n ion],as the element fills it’s valence shell

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review of ionic compounds
Review of Ionic Compounds

In an ionic compound,

  • One element [non-metal], can strongly pull electrons away from other element and become a negative ion [anion],as the element fills it’s valence shell
  • The other element [metal], is weaker at holding it’s electrons and loses valence electrons & becomes a positive ion [cation].
  • METAL + NON-METAL
slide2

Non-Metal

Anions

Metal

Cations

Noble Gases

molecular compounds

MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

have NON METALS bonding with NON METALS

H

B C N O F

Si P S Cl

As Se Br

Te I

At

molecular compounds1
MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
  • Non-metals in molecular compounds SHAREelectrons.
  • When non-metals share electrons they create a COVALENTbond. Hence, they are also called COVALENTCOMPOUNDS.
why share electrons

Both NON METAL elements in a molecular compounds have similar power to pull electrons.

So instead of gaining & losing electrons [as in ionic], molecular compounds SHAREelectrons between two NON-METAL elements, like a tug of war between two equals.

WHY SHARE ELECTRONS?

example of sharing
Example of sharing:

A COVALENTBONDbetween 2 fluorine atoms is how diatomic fluorine gas (F2) is formed

another example
Another example
  • This is methane – CH4
slide9
In molecular compounds a prefix is used to indicate the numberof each atom present.

CO2 C O O  carbon dioxide

counting atoms
Counting Atoms
  • CaSO4
  • Ca S O OOO
  • Mg3(PO4)2 
  • Mg MgMgP P O OOOOOOO
molecular compounds2
MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
  • You need to memorize the following prefixes:
molecular compounds3
MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
  • If there is only one of the first element we ignore the prefix,
  • but if there is only one of the second element we write the prefix – mono .
writing formulas
WRITING FORMULAS
  • Use the prefixes to determine the SUBSCRIPTSof each element in the compound.

Steps:

    • Check if compound is molecular (non-metal + non-metal)
    • Write the symbols of the elements

3. Write the subscript for the number of atoms represented by the prefix.

4. NO REDUCING dinitrogen tetroxide  N2O4 [not NO2]

Example 1 - sulphur trioxide

SO3

Example 2 - diphosphoruspentasulphide

P2S5

practice questions
Practice Questions
  • sulfur trioxide
  • carbon dioxide
  • sulphur hexafluoride
  • phosphorus trichloride
  • nitrogen monoxide
  • SO3
  • CO2
  • SF6
  • PCl3
  • NO
writing names
WRITING NAMES
  • Writing names is also straight forward. You use the appropriate prefix to indicate the number of atomsof that element.

Steps:

    • Check that compound is molecular.
    • Determine the appropriate prefix for each element.

3. Write the prefix and the name of the element.

examples
Examples
  • Example 1 - N2O

dinitrogenmonoxide

  • Example 2 - BrI

bromine moniodide

  • Example 3 - XeF4

xenon tetrafluoride

practice questions1
Practice Questions

1. N2O4

2. SO2

3. H2O

4. P2O5

5. CF4

6. NCl3

practice questions answers
Practice Questions - Answers

1. N2O4

2. SO2

3. H2O

4. P2O5

5. CF4

6. NCl3

dinitrogentetroxide*

sulfurdioxide

dihydrogenmonoxide

diphosphorouspentoxide

carbon tetrafluoride

nitrogen trichloride

diatomic elements
DIATOMIC ELEMENTS
  • Some of the elements are gases at room temperature .
  • Which means they exist naturally as compounds of the same element bonded together.
  • These elements include: H O N ClF Br I
  • hydrogen gas H2
  • oxygen gas O2
  • nitrogen gas N2
  • Chlorine gas Cl2
  • fluorine gas F2
  • Bromine(liquid) Br2
  • Iodine(solid) I2
other common names of compounds
OTHER COMMON NAMES OF COMPOUNDS
  • O3 - ozone
  • H2O - water
  • H2O2 - hydrogen peroxide
  • NH3 - ammonia
  • CH4 - methane

Lets look at their Electron structures

combining capacities of non metals
Combining Capacities of NON-Metals
  • The number of electrons a non-metal needs to share to become stable is a clue to the number of covalent bonds the element can form
  • Look to the number of valence electrons and
  • how many more electrons are needed to achieve a stable valence shell
sharing electrons
Sharing Electrons

When NON METAL elements share electrons they create COVALENT BONDS

sharing electrons1
Sharing Electrons

When NON METAL elements share electrons they create COVALENT BONDS

homework
HOMEWORK
  • Textbook – Chapter 4.2
    • read pages 152 -157
    • do question #1 - 4 Page 156,
    • pg 158, #1 - 7
    • do practice problem on page ?