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  1. HAIR CARE Original presentation by: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt RojanapanthuPharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Edited by: Ellen Berwick

  2. Hair Getting to know hair • Types of hair • Hair structure • Hair growth cycle • Hair Color • Physical properties of hair • Chemical properties of hair

  3. Hair Care Products that affect Chemistry • Shampoos • Conditioners • “2 in 1” shampoos • Hair sprays • Hair gels • Perming solutions • Hair dyes • General remarks about product development

  4. Getting to Know Hair All land mammals including humans have hairy skins Hair characteristics (like your eyes and skin) are inherited directly from our parents • hair color • hair type

  5. Hair distribution • Human are covered all over in hair except on the palms of hands the sole of the feet the lips • Hair is most obvious on the head and face including the nose and ears in some people the armpits / the groin the chest and legs (in men)

  6. How much hair do we have • Average : 100,000-150,000 hair follicles Baby’s head : 1,100 follicles/m2 Age 25 : ~ 600/m2 Age 30-50 : ~ 250-300/m2 • Each follicle grow about 20 new hairs in lifetime • Each new hair grows several year 1 meter • Each hair falls out eventually and is replaced by a new hair

  7. Variation in human hair • Different people have hair that differs in color, length, diameter, distribution • Influence factors : Racial type and Age

  8. Lanuga hair • develops on an unborn baby • 3months after the baby’s conception • fine and soft • grows all over the body, at the same rate • shed about 4 weeks before the baby is due to born Three types of hair:

  9. Vellus hairs • short hair, only 1 or 2 cm long • contains little or no pigment • follicle doesn’t have oil glands

  10. Terminal hairs • long hairs that grow on the head, body, arms and legs • produced by follicles withsebaceous glands • people inherited a tendency for baldness where the hair become thinner and shorter until look like vellus hair

  11. d Vellus hairs on a woman’s chin. These are normal when female hormones decline, hairs on the chin can grow as strongly as terminal hairs

  12. Hair Structure Hair follicle • a tiny cup-shaped pit buried deep in the fat of the scalp • follicle is the point from which the hair grows • well supplied with minute blood vessels • temperature is not affected by cold or hot water • the rate of growth depends on the amount of natural light : growing a little faster in winter when the days are short

  13. Hair follicle Hair bulb Hair shaft Hair bulb - lines in side the hair follicle - is a structure of actively growing cells - produce a long fine cylinder of hair - new cells are continuously produced in the lower part of the bulb

  14. (a) Longitudinal section of a hair within its follicle. (b) Enlarged longitudinal section of a hair.

  15. (c) Enlarged longitudinal view of the expanded hair bulb of the follicle which encloses the matrix, actively dividing epithelial cells that produce the hair.

  16. (d) Cross section of a hair and hair follicle.

  17. (e) Photomicrograph of scalp tissue showing numerous hair follicles (24 X).

  18. Scanning electron micrograph showing a hair shaft emerging from a follicle at the epidermal surface. Notice how the scalelike cells of the cuticle overlap one another (1500 x).

  19. The Hair Shaft • can be seen above the scalp • consist mainly of dead cells Keratin + binding material + small amount of water • terminal hairs are lubricated by natural oil (sebum) produced by sebaceous glands • high level of hormones (androgens) high level of sebum

  20. Nature of cuticle • scales growing over the youngest part (closet to the scalp) are smooth and unbroken further along the hair have been damaged by cosmetic treatments and by mistreatment : (over-energetic brushing)

  21. Nature of cuticle (con.) • little by little, they may break away : “weathering” • healthy cuticle is more than just a protective layer • intact cuticle cells are smooth, glossy, and reflect light from their surface (black hair reflects less light than blond hair)

  22. The cuticle scale on a normal hair (electronmicrograph)

  23. A perfect hair seen under the electron microscope Another normal hair - but this came from one of our nearest relatives an orangutan!

  24. Hair shape • keratin chains link by : disulphide bond and hydrogen bonds • disulphide bonds can be changed by chemical methods : perming and relaxing permanent • hydrogen bonds can be easily broken apart whenever the hair is wetted and form again as it dries • when they break the shape of hair changes • wet hair is wound on the roller, the dried hair keeps the roller shape temporary

  25. Hair dimensions • European around 70-90 micron • Asian around 120 micron • People have average hair around 100,000 – 150,000 hairs

  26. Hair growth cycle • individual hair form inside a hair bulb deep in hair • follicle is tiny but powerful factory • each hair grows during many years • shampooed, conditioned, cut, blown dry, exposal to the sun and wind, colored, bleached, permed none of these affected the hair growth • the hair spontaneously falls out • the follicle rests for a little while and starts to produce a new hair

  27. Stage of the hair cycle • anagen : the growing phase (~1000 days) • catagen : the intermediate phase (~10 days) • telogen : the shedding phase (~100 days)

  28. Anagen (the growing phase) • last between 3-7 years without interruption • roughly 1 cm/month > 1 meter • faster rate in winter than summer • melanin is made in hair bulb throughout this phase • less pigment is made in older people, hair cycle becomes shorter • follicles gradually give up producing long, strong hair : • hairs become thinner and shorter thinning of the hair degree of baldness

  29. Catagen (the intermediate phase) • short resting phase : 2-4 weeks • no pigment is made • follicles stop producing hair • the base of follicle moves upwards towards the surface of the skin

  30. Telogen (the shedding phase) • lastfor 3-4 months • new hair begin to grow from the hair follicle • as it grow s upwards the old hair will be shed naturally or easily be pulled out • at anytime around one in ten of the follicles at individual’s head is in the shedding phase • shedding is part of normal process of the replacement of old hair with new hair • new hair emerges from the same opening as the old one

  31. The hair follicle cycle

  32. A method of measuring the rate of hair growth: both cut hairs and newly emerging hairs can be seen

  33. Electronmicrograph showing new hairs emerging from the hair follicles of the scalp

  34. What controls hair growth ? • general health and nutritional factors • starvation or crash diet loosing hair in 6-10 weeks • alcoholic people have poor hair • some minerals may particularly important for hair growth

  35. Hair growth (con.) • lack of Zn : produces only fine, sparse hairs even lost their hairs • Vit B : known as panthenol, plays a part in hair growth, improves physical properties (elasticity, strength and gloss) of the hair shaft

  36. Hormones : • thyroid hormone speeds up growth in resting hair follicles • steroids taken by mouth slow down the growth

  37. Hormones (con.) • Androgen : the most important factor regulating hair growth, thickness of hair shaft : changes vellus - like hair terminal hair • oestrogen : slow down hair growth during growth period, make the period longer

  38. This boy has a zinc deficiency, and his hair is very thin and sparse; after treatment his hair is growing more strongly

  39. Hair Color Pigmentation • Melanin : - produced by melanocytes at growing phase (anagen) - spread out throughout the cortex, the more near outer edge - does not protect the harmful effect from sunlight - is found in 2 forms • Eumelanin : dark pigmented which predominates in black and brunette hair/oval shape • Phaeomelain : lighter pigment, found in red and blond hair/smaller, partly oval and partly rod- shape

  40. Melanin granules in the cortex of a hair

  41. Factors affecting hair structure : • the arrangement of keratin bundles the way the large bundles of keratin are arranged within each hair shaft • the position of hair bulb : African hair bulb may lie to the side of the follicle, so the hair shaft grows out of the follicle at an acute angle

  42. Factors affecting hair structure (con.) • irregular growth in the hair bulb : if it varies slightly to one side or the other, hair may grow wavy • the shape of the follicle : whether it is straightor curved • the number of twists per unit length : African hair has 12 times as many twist per cm. as Caucasian hair

  43. Physical properties of hair • Strength • Elasticity • Static electricity • Moisture content • Porosity • Texture

  44. Hair strength • a single hair can support a load of about 100 gm • keratin protein of the cortex responsible for the hair strength • keratin is a protein chains contain high concentration of an amino acid called “cystine” • matrix contains high level of cystine

  45. Hair strength (con.) • each cystine unit contains 2 cysteine amino acids in different chain • the chains are linked by two sulphur atoms, forming a very strong chemical bond “disulphide linkage” • many disulphide bonds form down the length of the keratin chains

  46. Chemical bonds within the hair maintain its shape

  47. Elasticity • one of the most important properties • can resist forces that could change its shape, volume and length • lest spring back to its original form without damage • wet hair can increase the length up to 30% and return to original length when it is dried