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Life After Washington Another War Election of 1796 A. First openly contested election B. Federalists nominate John Adams C. Republicans nominate Thomas Jefferson D. Adams wins electoral votes 71-68 Quasi-War A. Troubles from French Revolution
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Life After Washington • Another War • Election of 1796 • A. First openly contested election • B. Federalists nominate John Adams • C. Republicans nominate Thomas Jefferson • D. Adams wins electoral votes 71-68 • Quasi-War • A. Troubles from French Revolution • 1. Radicals declare war on Britain • 2. US attempts neutrality • 3. British intercept US ships bound for France • B. Jay’s Treaty • 1. Britain had rights • 2. No compensation for US merchants • 3. Avoid war with GB
C. France retaliates • 1. French stop all US ships seize goods • 2. US navy begins capturing armed French ships • 3. Undeclared sea war [aka Quasi-War] • 4. Negotiations end dispute • Alien and Sedition Acts • A. Aliens = people living in US who not citizens • B. Sedition = incitement to rebellion • C. Most anti-British t/f anti-Federalist • D. Federalist gov’t under J Adams pass laws • 1. Required immigrants wait 14 yrs to become citizen • 2 Designed to weaken Republican party • 3. Allowed President to deport w/o trial • 4. Federal crime to say or print anything criticize gov’t
Nullification • A. Theory fed gov’t passed unconsti law states had right to nullify • B. Effect would make law invalid • Election of 1800 • A. John Adams up for reelection • B. Tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr • C. Vote settled in House w/Jefferson winning [Hamilton support] • Jefferson Presidency • A. Less formal/less aristocratic • B. Attempts to undo some Federalist policies • 1. Spare fed bank • 2. Cut taxes • 3. Reduce size of gov’t • 4. Reduce gov’t spending • C. Failed in attempt to change direction of fed court
D. Louisiana Purchase 1. France Louisiana from Spain help w/Italy 2. Robert Livingston to France use of port of New Orleans 3. Napoleon at war w/Europe needs $ 4. Also fears alliance b/t US and GB 5. France lost Haiti to independence t/f difficult to manage Lou 6. Offers all for $11.25 Mil + 3.75 debts = $15 million 7. Accepted w/o Congressional approval 8. More than doubled size of US E. Lewis and Clark Expedition 1. Appt by Congress 2. Fm St. Louis to explore new purchase of LA territory 3. Travel to Oregon Territory and Pacific Ocean 4. Aided by Sacajawea, Am Indian a. Wife of French trapper/trader b. Acts as guide/translator 5. Led to rapid migration of settlers to Pacific Northwest
F. Zebulon Pike • 1. Mapped upper Miss R • 2. Colorado and Pikes Peak • 3. Rio Grande, Mexico and southern Texas • 4. 1st description of Great Plains & Rocky Mtns • G. Essex Junto • 1. New England Federalist • 2. Loss of influence in natl affairs to South and West b/c La Pur • 3. Attempt to take NE out of Union • 4. Encourage Burr to run for gov NY • a. Offended by Hamilton • b. Kills Hamilton in duel when Ham refuse to fire • Election of 1808 • A. James Madison, Demo-Repub wins • B. Immediately faces trouble w/Great Britain • C. Non-Intercourse Act = no trade w/GB or France [at war] • D. War Hawks want war w/GB
War of 1812 • A. Impressment • 1. Taking sailors fm US ships forcing to serve in foreign navy • 2. Practiced by both British and French navy • B. Embargo • 1. Prohibiting entry or departure of ships • 2. Napoleon stop impressments if US stop embargo • C. Indians • 1. Tecumseh and The Prophet [brothers] • a. Shawnee leaders • b. Organized many tribes • 2. Allied themselves w/British Canadians against US • D. US attacks on Canada fail • E. Battle on Lake Erie • 1. Secret US fleet • 2. Defeat British navy for control of lake • 3. US fleet led by Oliver Perry
F. Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814) 1. Andrew Jackson command US and Cherokee forces 2. Attack and defeat Creeks Indians [allies of Tecumseh] 3. Result in Creeks losing most land in AL and GA G. Battle of Fort McHenry (1814) 1. Followed burning of WDC by British 2. Fort guarded Baltimore 3. Attacked by British fleet which lost 4. Francis Scott Key a. Held onboard ship in Harbor b. Wrote The Star Spangled Banner c. Later becomes national anthem H. Battle of New Orleans (1815) 1. Battle is two weeks after war is over 2. Andrew Jackson commands US forces 3. Big British defeat w/large losses 4. Gave people of US great pride in country 5. Made Jackson a hero and President
Consequences of the War • A. US defeats GB again • B. Results • 1. US & BG agree to return to pre-war land boundaries • 2. Other European nations recognized rights of US as nation • C. Viewed by many as 2nd war for US independence • D. Nationalism grew in US • 1. Great pride in ones country • 2. Desire to protect and promote interest of US • E. Tariff Act of 1816 • 1. High tariffs on imports • 2. Designed o protect domestic industries