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Integration of Software Cost Estimates Across COCOMO, SEER-SEM, and PRICE-S models. Tom Harwick, Engineering Specialist Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems October 26-29, 2004. 19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling. Outline.

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integration of software cost estimates across cocomo seer sem and price s models

Integration of Software Cost EstimatesAcross COCOMO, SEER-SEM, and PRICE-S models

Tom Harwick, Engineering Specialist

Northrop Grumman Corporation

Integrated Systems

October 26-29, 2004

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

outline
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingOutline
  • Need for Inter-Model Estimate Integration
  • Model Analysis
    • Model Comparisons & Sensitivity Analysis
    • Economic Properties
  • Baseline Example
    • COCOMO
    • SEER-SEM
    • PRICE-S
  • Summary

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

need for inter model estimate integration
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingNeed for Inter-Model Estimate Integration
  • Communication of overall Software Cost Estimate to the Customer
  • Minimize Program Cost Risk
  • Integration of Software Estimates Across Vendors
    • Various Software Cost Models
      • Sizing Definitions
      • Selection of Cost Driver Settings
    • Vendors have different Statement Of Work (SOW)

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis
  • Approach
    • Understand Properties of Each Cost Model
      • Sizing and Sizing Normalization
      • Productivity Cost Drivers
        • Team & Process
        • Market – Customer(s)
        • Complexity, Operating Environment
        • Model Scope Differences

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis cost drivers by cost model
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Cost Drivers by Cost Model

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis concept of ceterus parabus
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Concept of “Ceterus Parabus”

Methodology to Extract Cost Driver Information

Cost

Slope = delta Cost/delta (Analyst Experience)

Range = Cost/(Analyst Experience)

Parameter

(e.g. Analyst Experience)

Other parameters

held constant

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis major cocomo cost drivers
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Major COCOMO Cost Drivers

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis major seer sem cost drivers
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Major SEER-SEM Cost Drivers

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis major price s cost drivers
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Major PRICE-S Cost Drivers

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis team process
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Team & Process

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis market
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Market

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis complexity
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Complexity

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis scope
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Scope

Did not find many data points in the COCOMO I database that suggest a System Integration on the scale of our (next) Baseline example (3-4 Million SLOCs).

Has COCOMO II been able to collect sufficient data to develop a (large scale) System Integration factor?

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

slide14
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Economic Properties(Models Exponents Indicate Diseconomies of Scale for Large Projects)

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

model analysis economic properties
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingModel Analysis - Economic Properties

All Software Cost Models show a Schedule Compression penalty.

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

baseline example
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingBaseline Example
  • Illustrate Software Cost Estimation & Integration
    • Baseline
      • SEER-SEM – Sensor Software
      • PRICE-S – Air Vehicle Software
      • COCOMO – Control Station
    • Sizing Assumptions and Scenarios
      • Equivalent New SLOC
    • Productivity Range
      • Hours/ SLOC
    • Estimating Ranges using Monte Carlo
      • Hours = (SLOC) X (Hours/SLOC)

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

baseline example productivity ranges productivity hours sloc
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingBaseline Example – Productivity Ranges- Productivity (Hours/SLOC)

COCOMO Assumptions:

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

baseline example results
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingBaseline Example – Results

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

baseline example air vehicle hours hours sloc x sloc
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingBaseline Example – Air Vehicle, Hours = (Hours/SLOC) X SLOC

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

summary
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingSummary
  • Identified Major “local domain” Cost Drivers
    • COCOMO II, SEER-SEM, PRICE-S
  • Examined Economic Properties
    • Diseconomies of Scale, Schedule Compression
    • Productivity Ranges
      • Scenario Analysis using top 2-3 Cost Drivers
  • Illustrated Software Cost Estimation & Integration
    • Model Integration using Monte Carlo Probability Curves
      • Scenarios for Sizing
      • Model Output for Productivity

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

object oriented analysis ooa
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingObject Oriented Analysis (OOA)
  • OOA
    • Unified Modeling Language (UML)
      • Several Standard Diagrams
    • Starts with “Use Case” (users view of the world)
    • Develops charts including:
      • Use Case (Actors use of information in the system)
      • Collaboration Diagrams (provide details of each Use Case)
      • Class Diagram
        • Specify Blueprints (for objects)
          • Attributes and Methods
          • Relationship between Classes
    • Objects are linked across a design
      • Object Interfaces
        • Encapsulates Local Variables within a “Black Box”
      • Inheritance of Classes

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

slide25
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingSnapshot of Unified Modeling Language (UML)– From Use Case, Flow of Information, to Class Diagrams of Systems

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

object oriented analysis ooa benefits
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingObject Oriented Analysis (OOA) Benefits
  • Object Oriented Analysis with Unified Modeling Language
    • Overall Project Cost Savings
      • Similar to System Engineering impact:
        • Mitigate Risk, Cost, Schedule Impacts
        • Decreases Defects
      • May increase Design work
        • But Avoids excessive re-work
      • Facilitates Integrate and Test
        • Better designed Interfaces
      • Promotes System Integration
        • If compatible UML used on all vendor designs
    • Helps Customer Understand Product Purchased
      • Sooner, Decrease Requirements Volatility
    • Need Data to Measure impact of OOA (UML)

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling

references
19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost ModelingReferences
  • Models:
  • Price Systems, PRICE-S model, Los Angeles, California, 1996.
  • Galorath Associates, SEER-SEM, Los Angeles, California, 1996.
  • USC Associates, COCOMO II.1999, Los Angeles, California, 2004.
  • Books:
  • 1. Boehm, Reifer, et al., Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2000.
  • 2. Boehm, Barry W., Software Engineering Economics, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1981.
  • 3. Deming, W. Edward, Out of the Crisis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1982.
  • 4. Cs3 Inc., Objected Oriented Analysis Using the Unified Modeling Language, (UML), Los Angeles, CA, 2000-2003.

19th International Forum on COCOMO and Software Cost Modeling