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Kingdom Animalia PowerPoint Presentation
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Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom Animalia

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Kingdom Animalia

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  1. Kingdom Animalia

  2. Body Plans • Asymmetrical • Having no specific shape Sponge • Bilateral • ½ body is mirror image of other ½

  3. Body Plans • Radial Symmetry • Same distance around a central point or line • Like a wheel

  4. Body Plans • Anterior • Front end of an animal (head) • Posterior • Back end of an animal (tail) Anterior Posterior

  5. Body Plans • Dorsal • Back • Ventral • Belly or underside (stomach) Dorsal Ventral

  6. Vocabulary • Endothermic • Maintaining a constant body temperature • Ectothermic • Body temperature same as surrounding temperature 98.6° 72 °

  7. Body Cavities • Acoelom(ate) • No open body cavity • Pseudocoelomate • Small cavity not containing organs • Coelom(ate) • Body cavity containing organs

  8. Coelomate Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate

  9. Pre-fixes To Know Endo = within / inside Ecto / Exo = Outside Meso = Middle

  10. Invertebrates • No Backbone • 95% of all animals fall into this category

  11. Phylum Porifera • Sponges • Asymmetrical shape • Filter water through body (pores) • Sessile – anchored to a surface • No organs, but specialized cells Attached

  12. Dye is being pulled in at the bottom and exiting through the tubes at the top

  13. Phylum Porifera • Reproduction • Asexual – budding • Hermaphrodites – both male and female reproductive structures • Sexual – shed egg and sperm into water – fertilization is external • Gas Exchange & Excretion – diffusion into water

  14. Phylum Cnidaria • “Bag or Sac-like” Animals • Jellyfish, Corals and Hydra • Radial Symmetry • Tentacles with Stinging Cells (nematocysts) • Tissues (Germ Layers) • Endoderm – Inner Layer • Ectoderm – Outer Layer

  15. Cnidarian Digestion Stinging cells • Tentacles surround mouth • Gastrovascular Cavity • Acoelomate (no coelom) • Single body opening • Two way digestion • Have Organs, but no Systems

  16. Cnidarian Reproduction • External Fertilization in water • Some release both egg and sperm • Hermaphrodites • Budding – bud grows off parent

  17. Feeding Hydra http://www.olympusmicro.com/micd/galleries/moviegallery/pondscum/coelenterata/hydra/t1/hydra02.html

  18. Cnidarian Gas Exchange and Excretion • Gas exchange and excretion • Simple diffusion into water Polyps open up for feeding, gas exchange and excretion of wastes Polyps close during day

  19. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Flatworms, planarians, tapeworms • Bilaterial symmetry • Tissues • Endoderm, Ectoderm & Mesoderm • Single body opening – Pharynx – used like a straw to ingest food • Two-way digestion – Food in, waste out Pharynx

  20. Platyhelminthes.... • Reproduction • Sexual, Asexual (Regeneration) • Most species are both male and female • Hermaphrodite • Gas Exchange and Excretion • Diffusion with water • Flame cells simple kidney – filters out excess water • Sensory Eyespots – light sensors

  21. Other Flatworms...

  22. Phylum Nematoda • Parasites • Round worms, hook worms and whip worms • Bilateral symmetry • Most numerous worms • Pseudocoelom

  23. Nematodes.... Digestion • 2 body openings (mouth and anus) • More specialized digestive system • One-Way Digestion Gas Exchange • Breathes through skin

  24. Phylum Annelida • Segmented worms; most complex worms • Leaches, marine worms, earthworms • Bilateral Symmetry

  25. Annelida.... Circulation • Closed Circulatory system (contained in vessels as compared to flowing through an open body cavity Aortic Arch

  26. Annelida.... Digestive System • Complete digestive system • Mouth, Crop, Gizzard, Intestine, Anus • First group to have a true coelom

  27. Annelida.... Reproduction • Hermaphrodite or sexual reproduction • Clitellum – band located on earthworm used for reproduction Gas Exchange & Excretion • Absorbs moisture and breathe through skin • Nephredia – excretes waste through pores in skin

  28. Phylum Mollusca • Clams, Snails, Octopus • Filter Feeders – clams; Gastrovascular cavity – octopus, snails • Bilateral Symmetry • External, Internal or NO Shell • Most developed head of invertebrates so far (except clams) • Tentacles – lack stinging cells, but trap food

  29. Mollusca... • Gas Exchange and Excretion • Gills • Nephredia to remove waste • Circulation • Has a heart • Bivalves – Open Circulation – no vessels • Squid/Octopus – Closed Circulation - vessels

  30. Phylum Arthropoda "Jointed Walking Legs"

  31. Arthropods.... • Lobster, Crabs Crayfish, Insects and Spiders • Insects: Most successful group on earth • Largest Phylum • Bilateral symmetry • Exoskeleton: outer skeleton made of Chitin • Must molt or shed their shell to grow

  32. Arthropods... • Body segmented into distinct body parts… • Head, Thorax and Abdomen • Better developed senses • Most have internal fertilization (on land) • Gas Exchange and Excretion • Malphigian Tubules, Spiracles, Nephredia

  33. Arthropods... • Circulation • Open Circulation System • Complex Nervous System

  34. Phylum Echinodermata • “Spiny Skin” • Marine Invertebrates • Sea Star, Sea cucumbers, Starfish, Sand dollars • Water Vascular system controls tube feet movement and aids digestive system • Inner skeleton - Endoskeleton

  35. Echinoderms... • Regeneration of lost body parts • Radial Symmetry • Gas Exchange and Excretion • Diffusion into water

  36. Vertebrates • Phylum Chordata • All chordates have these characteristics in some point in their lives • Notochord- dorsal rod of cartilage • Dorsal nerve cord • Gill slits and tail

  37. Vertebrates • Sub-phylum Vertebrata • Backbone- made of Vertebrae-bony segments • Highly evolved nervous system

  38. Vertebrates • Class Agnatha- jawless fish • Have sucker heads • Ex. Lamprey and hagfish

  39. Vertebrates • Class Chondrichthyes- cartilagenous fish • Skeleton made of cartilage • Ex. Sharks, rays, and skates

  40. Vertebrates • Class Osteichthyes- bony fish • Majority of fish

  41. Vertebrates • Common Characteristics of Fish • Circulation • 2 chambered heart (1 atrium & 1 ventricle) • Closed circulation • Gas Exchange and Excretion • Gills fused with circulatory • system • Excrete ammonia directly • into water

  42. Vertebrates • Common Characteristics of Fish • Reproduction • Internal or external fertilization • Lay eggs, carry eggs inside body, or live birth • Ectothermic • Cannot control • temperature

  43. Vertebrates • Class Amphibia • Live a “Double Life”- live on land but must return to water to reproduce • No skin covering, moist, no claws • Ex.- frogs, salamanders, toads

  44. Vertebrates • Class Amphibia • Lay eggs • Ectothermic- cold blooded • External fertilization in water • 3-chambered heart • Gas Exchange and excretion • Gills as tadpole, Lungs as adult • Diffuse oxygen through their skin

  45. Vertebrates • Class Reptilia • Produce first land egg- allows for reproduction on land • Amniotic egg- fluid filled egg laid on land • Reptile eggs have a leathery case • Internal fertilization

  46. Vertebrates • Class Reptilia • Scales and claws • Ectothermic • 3 chambered heart (except crocodiles and alligator- they have 4 chambers) • Ex- snakes, lizards, turtles, alligators

  47. Vertebrates • Class Aves- birds • Endothermic- maintain constant body temperature even when external conditions change • Feathers- believed to be modified scales (scales still present on feet)

  48. Vertebrates • Class Aves • Hollow bones for flight • Internal fertilization • Digestive- crop, gizzard, intestines • Circulatory- 4 chambered heart • Ex- geese, swans, chickens, hawks