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Gene Expression

Gene Expression

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Gene Expression

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Gene Expression Transcription and Translation DNA  RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)  Protein

  2. DNA

  3. Found: In the Nucleus Purpose: Carry information for making proteins Bases: A Adenine T Thymine C Cytosine G Guanine Strands: Two Length: Long Hundreds or thousands of genes DNA

  4. RNA

  5. Found: In the Nucleus and Cytoplasm Purpose: To carry information from DNA to RNA Bases: A Adenine U Uracil C Cytosine G Guanine Strands: One Length: Short One gene long RNA

  6. Types of RNA tRNA mRNA rRNA

  7. Types of RNA • Types of RNA • rRNA (r = ribosomal) • Purpose: Part of the ribosome, • Shape: Globular in shape • mRNA (m = messenger) • Purpose: To carry information from the nucleus • Shape: Long, thin strand • tRNA (t = transfer) • Brings amino acids to the ribosome • Shape: Cloverleaf

  8. Transcription

  9. RNA polymerase mRNA

  10. RNA polymerase

  11. Steps to Transcription • RNA Polymerase attaches to the promoter • RNA polymerase attaches bases until the termination sequence is reached • Once termination sequence has been reached, the new RNA is released • Can be mRNA, rRNA, or tRNA

  12. Now What? Transcipt is used to make protein! Where? The Ribosome!

  13. The Genetic Code

  14. The Genetic Code • Genetic Code • Term for the rules that relate how a sequence of nitrogenous bases in nucleotide correspond to an amino acids • Codon • Set of three nucleotides that encode an amino acid, start signal or stop signal • Start codon signals where translation starts • Stop codon signals where translation ends

  15. Ribosome Purpose? Bases? Found?

  16. mRNA Bases? Purpose? Found?

  17. tRNA Bases? Purpose? Found?

  18. Translation

  19. Translation • mRNA attaches to the ribosome • tRNA carries complementary anticodon and amino acids to the ribosome • Peptide bond forms between the amino acids and tRNA is released • This process continues until the stop codon is reached • There is no anticodon for the stop codon • Protein is released