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Carl Jung (1875-1961). In addition to being a psychologist. Jung was an artist: He painted, drew and sculpted He designed and built a “Tower” for himself (see Bollingen, next slide) Jung was somewhat of a mystic:

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carl jung 1875 1961

Carl Jung (1875-1961)

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

in addition to being a psychologist
In addition to being a psychologist
  • Jung was an artist:
    • He painted, drew and sculpted
    • He designed and built a “Tower” for himself
    • (see Bollingen, next slide)
  • Jung was somewhat of a mystic:
    • He thought that repressing one’s spiritual calling would create psychological problems in the individual.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

the entrance to bollingen
The entrance to Bollingen

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

bollingen is
Bollingen is
  • Near Zurich, Switzerland
  • Prof De Cubas and I went there last summer (among other places)
  • The building of this place reflected Jung's own psychological growth and unfolding through the years.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

jung s ways of thinking
Jung's ways of thinking :
  • Quantitative:
    • He did an experimental study of word associations
    • He analyzed thousands of dreams
  • Qualitative:
    • He relied on the clinical, case study method
  • Analogical and symbolic:
    • In his theories involving the collective unconscious, archetypes and psychological alchemy
    • In the mandalas he drew, and the art he made.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

mandalas what are they
Mandalas? What are they?
  • They are circle kinds of drawings representative of the self.
  • They have been used ritually in Eastern meditation practices also.
  • Here is a site that gives some illustrations of Jung's mandalas (but there are many more. The URL is

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

jung and more objective methods
Jung and more objective methods
  • Jung thought of himself as a scientist.
  • One of the methods he pioneered in clinical psychology is that of word associations

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

word associations complexes
Word associations & Complexes
  • Francis Galton was the first one to use this method on himself (1879)
  • Jung created a list of 100 words. See Education/Jungian Studies/J_empirical_s/Word_assoc_test_form.html
    • He looked not only at the content of the associations but also at how long it took the subject to answer, and any reactions around the response.
  • Words giving rise to longer response times etc… may be connected by common unconscious (repressed) emotional themes or complexes.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

an example of diagnosis 1
An example of diagnosis(1)
  • A 30 year old woman had atypical responses on the following words:
    • Obstinate: it means nothing to me
    • Evil: no answer
    • Blue: the eyes of the child I have lost
  • What had happened:
    • Her daughter and little son were being given a bath. She saw her daughter suck on a bath sponge,thought of stopping her, but did not interfere. The water was infected and the girl died of typhoid fever.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

diagnosis 2
Diagnosis (2)
  • Two weeks before:
    • The woman had found out that a man (with similar blue eyes) she had very much loved had in fact wanted to marry her, and was angry she married another.
    • But she had not known, and under family pressure had married her current husband, and had two children by him.
    • She repressed her feelings when learning this.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

diagnosis 3
Diagnosis (3)
  • The woman said:
    • She had seen her daughter suck the sponge, thought of stopping her (thought the water might be contaminated) but did not. She did not do anything to protect her little son either.
  • Jung’s interpretation:
    • The serious negligence (which was almost murder) resulted from an unconscious desire to undo her marriage.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

what happened
What happened
  • Jung gave this interpretation to the woman --who did not say much.
  • The woman, who had been hospitalized for (seemingly) acute schizophrenia, got better and within 3 weeks could go home.
  • Facing the guilt, said Jung, and being aware of her motives is what healed her.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

beyond the personal unconscious
Beyond the personal Unconscious
  • Is the collective unconscious, an impersonal or transpersonal unconscious, common to all humans
  • In it are images and ideas common to all. These archetypes are templates of sort, able to shape experience in particular ways.
  • Archetypes are a repository of ancestral memory in symbolic and mythical form.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

archetypes and spirituality
Archetypes and spirituality
  • Common archetypes across cultures provide us with a readiness to understand each other at a spiritual level as well as at a psychological level.
  • Christian missionaries such as Don Richardson in Eternity in Their Hearts talk about "redemptive analogies", stories, images in many cultures that echo with the Gospel. Here is a URL that speaks of him:

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

some well known archetypes


Trickster or Magician







For pictorial representations of archetypes go to

Some well known archetypes

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

archetypes and society
Archetypes and society
  • Jung felt that, not only individuals but also groups of people, nations, may project a single archetype at a given moment of history.
  • What archetypes is our nation projecting just now, as we are faced with the issue of terrorism and possible war?

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

archetypes and dreams
Archetypes and dreams
  • Most dreams reflect the personal unconscious
  • Some rare dreams have archetypal content. Some cultures call them “great dreams”, connected to a person’s calling or destiny, and to society as well.
  • A good intro to Dream Interpretation can be found at

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

archetypes and synchronicity
Archetypes and synchronicity
  • An example of synchronicity:
    • as you rummage through some old things one evening, you come upon a picture of an old friend you have not heard from in years. The next day, as you have a cup of coffee at Starbucks, guess who walks in…
  • Jung says:
    • Events can be related through meaning as well as causality, there can be “meaningful simultaneity” --here through an archetype activated by your emotion as you looked at the picture.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

is this weird yet
Is this weird yet?
  • Probably so, for some of the readers, and it is intriguing for others.
  • Jung would say, that is probably because the readers have different personality types.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

jungian attitude types
Jungian attitude types
  • Introversion:
    • what is primary is the inner life (hence prefers intimacy needs more time alone).
  • Extroversion:
    • what is primary is the external world (hence more outgoing, adapts easily)
  • Which is stronger in you?
    • (it is a question of preference --we all can be one or the other at times.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

orientation toward the world
Orientation toward the world

(what Jung calls ectopsychic functions)

  • Irrational functions (perception)
    • N: Intuition (awareness, hunches, connection with the unconscious)
    • S: Sensing (observation of external facts)

Which is stronger in you?

  • Rational functions (judgment)
    • T: Thinking (what a thing is, use of concepts)
    • F: Feeling (the value of a thing, whether something is agreeable or disagreeable)

Which is stronger in you?

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

which orientation dominates your behavior
Which orientation dominates your behavior?
  • P: Perceptual? (irrational)
    • Tendency to flow with things, with what is there now
  • J: Judgment? (rational)
    • Tendency to organize, schedule
  • Note: this dimension is an addition by Myers, and present in the Myers Briggs.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

16 personality types








Functions in red dominate thepersonality, the OPPOSITE VALUE of the function in blueindicates weakness or blind spot









Functions in red dominate thepersonality, the OPPOSITE VALUE of function in blue indicates weakness or blind spot

16 personality types

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

16 ways to be healthy
16 ways to be healthy
  • There is not just one way to be healthy, there are many ways.
  • Every way to be --even healthily-- is incomplete and has weaknesses.
  • To be whole, we need the help of others, who have weaknesses where we have strengths.

That is a cherished idea of the Apostle Paul as well. See for example Rom 12:1-8

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

the process of individuation
The Process of Individuation
  • The process by which individuals grow, develop their patterns of relationship w/ their personal and collective unconscious.
  • The pursuit of inner harmony that brings together in harmony the various conflicting themes, antagonistic forces in one’s personality.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

the transcendent function
The Transcendent Function
  • Transcendent function
    • is the name Jung gives to the drive we have in ourselves to grow and reconcile our polarities.
  • Enantiodromia
    • Is the name given to the process itself. Literally, it means: “running against”. We grow by developing the qualities, themes, we have neglected before, and we become less one-sided.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

adult development
Adult development
  • Suppose a person started adult life
    • by being strongly career-oriented, then, after 15-20 years, the more nurturing, person-oriented aspects of personality will develop (or vice-versa)
  • Jung says that, in the middle years,
    • the Self archetype develops, and, he says, in our culture, the most perfect symbol of the Self is Christ. URL:
    • The Self is the center of who one is, and little by little it supplants the more narrow ego
    • The Self, say Jung, is indistinguishable from the image of God I us.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

helps to growth
Helps to growth
  • Jung thought that the use of active imagination greatly facilitated development.
  • Hence, he encouraged journaling, imagining, drawing, expressing oneself in creative ways.
  • One type of drawing he paid particular attention to is the mandala.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

  • The mandala (from a sanskrit word meaning “circle”)
    • Is a circular drawing, often divided into various segments and layers. Jung saw the mandalas he and his patients drew as representing various aspects of the self. URL
    • Mandalas have been and are used by various cultures in that way also: there are mythological and ritual mandalas. URL'01/lyon.mandalas/links.htm

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

  • One of the most popular aspects of Jung’s theory has been that of personality types (Myers Briggs test)
  • His ideas on adult development have been widely used.
  • His theory is the first psychological theory incorporating cross-cultural elements.
  • His theory also leaves room for the spiritual, hence religious practitioners (like Christians) have used it --and others have strongly objected to it because they view it as too syncretic.

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

and you

And You?

What do you think?

© Lucie Johnson 2005-2010