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Mineral Criteria. Inorganic: not made up of living things Naturally Occurring: exist in nature Crystalline Solid: regularly repeating crystalline structure Consistent Chemical Composition: consistent, no variety. Mineral Classes. Silicates: contain silicon (Si) and oxygen (O)

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mineral criteria
Mineral Criteria
  • Inorganic: not made up of living things
  • Naturally Occurring: exist in nature
  • Crystalline Solid: regularly repeating crystalline structure
  • Consistent Chemical Composition: consistent, no variety
mineral classes
Mineral Classes
  • Silicates: contain silicon (Si) and oxygen (O)
  • Nonsilicates: do not contain silicon (Si) and oxygen (O), 6 major groups
    • Carbonates, Halides, Native elements, Oxides, Sulfates, Sulfides
mineral identification
Mineral Identification
  • Color: easy to observe, minerals vary in color.
  • Many minerals are similar in color.
  • Small amounts of certain elements may greatly affect the color of a mineral.
  • Weathered surfaces may hide the color of minerals.
  • Examine freshly exposed surfaces.
we re going streaking
We’re going streaking!
  • Streak: color of the mineral in powdered form.
  • Rub a mineral against a piece of unglazed ceramic tile (streak plate).
  • The streak’s color may differ from the color of the mineral itself.
my precious precious
My precious, precious.
  • Luster: light that is reflected from a mineral’s surface.
  • Metallic: reflects light similar to polished metal.
  • Nonmetallic: All other minerals.
    • Glassy, waxy, pearly, brilliant, and dull or earthy.
hey mohs why i awtah
Hey, Mohs! Why I awtah…
  • Mohs hardness scale: standard scale against which the hardness of minerals is rated. (1-10)
    • 1 is soft, 10 is hard
  • The bonds between the atoms that make up a mineral’s internal structure determines the hardness of that mineral.
  • Test the hardness by scratching the minerals.
    • p. 111 Mohs Hardness Scale
  • Cleavage: tendency of a mineral to split along specific planes of weakness to form smooth, flat surfaces.
    • Break along flat surfaces that generally run parallel to planes of weakness in the crystal structure.
time for a break
Time for a Break!
  • Fracture: break unevenly into pieces that have curved or irregular surfaces.
    • Uneven or irregular fracture: rough surface
    • Splintery or fibrous fracture: looks like a piece of broken wood.
    • Conchoidal fractures: curved surfaces.
not again
Not again!
  • Density: ratio of the mass to the volume of a substance. D=m/v
    • Depends on the kinds of atoms that the mineral has and depends on how closely the atoms are packed.
    • Heavy metals have larger densities.
    • Helps identifying heavier minerals easier.
special properties
Special Properties
  • Fluorescence: glow under ultraviolet light.
  • Phosphorescence: continue to glow after ultraviolet light is removed.
  • Magnetism: attract metal, contain iron.
  • Radioactivity: nuclei of some atoms are unstable.
    • Results in nuclei decay over time.
lights camera action
Lights, Camera, Action!
  • Light rays bend as they pass through transparent minerals.
  • Double Refraction: Light rays are split into 2 parts as they enter the crystal.
    • Produces a double image.