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ADMIN. Phone numbers for emergency: Country code is 976; city code is 11 Hotel- 976-11-313-380 CDR Wohlschlegel- Room 513 Mr. John Miller (cel)- 9911-0323 Mr. Bob Holub (cel)0 9909-1907. “The Basics”. Peace Operations. MPAT Workshop Module Series.

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Phone numbers for emergency:

Country code is 976; city code is 11

Hotel- 976-11-313-380

CDR Wohlschlegel- Room 513

Mr. John Miller (cel)- 9911-0323

Mr. Bob Holub (cel)0 9909-1907

the basics

“The Basics”

Peace Operations

MPAT Workshop Module Series

peace operations

Elements of National & International Power will be used – not just one dimension:

  • Diplomatic
    • Economic
      • Information
        • Military
          • Psycho-Social
Peace Operations

“There are no standard Peace Operations”

JP 3-07.3

peace operations challenges
Peace Operations Challenges
  • Each Peace Operation will have its own unique situational setting
    • Unique political factors
    • Unique diplomatic characteristics
    • Unique geographical, cultural, language, and security characteristics
who executes peace operations
Who Executes Peace Operations?
  • United Nations (UN) – 2 Types
    • UN Sanctioned/Authorized operations (Regional Organizational Led (Combined) or Multinational Led (Coalition – Lead Nation concept)
    • UN Sponsored/Mandated operation (UN Chain of Command – UN led)
  • Regional Organization (Combined) Led (NATO, OAU, etc.)
    • Non-UN Alliance / Treaty based
  • Multinational Organization (Coalition) Led
    • Lead Nation Concept (Non-UN)
    • Multinational Crisis Action Planning Ops
    • Ad-hoc based on emerging crisis / No regional framework is present to address crisis

Note: There are significant differences in the Command Relationships, Control, and Coordination Processes for the above PO options – see Module 4

broad categories of peace operations

Broad Categories of Peace Operations

Peacekeeping Operations (PKO)

Peace Enforcement Operations (PEO)

  • Note –Terminology Differences: Many variations in terminology.
  • UN commonly refers to Peace Operations as Peacekeeping and also uses the term Peace Support Operations (PSO) at times.
  • NATO uses the term PSO.
  • Other nations use variations of terminology (based upon political and operational implications / factors).
  • The MNF SOP will use the overarching term of Peace Operations with two broad categories of operations as outlined above for clarity in mission planning.
peacekeeping operations pko
Peacekeeping Operations (PKO)

Purpose: Designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an agreement (cease fire, truce, and other related agreements) and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement.

Key Factor: Undertaken with consent of all majorparties to a dispute.

peace enforcement operations peo
Peace Enforcement Operations (PEO)

Purpose: Use of necessary means up to and including military force to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to establish security, peace and order.

Key Factor: Application of appropriate means, military force or clear threat of military force to compel compliance of parties involved.

distinction between pko and peo
Distinction Between PKO and PEO
  • Three main distinctions are:
  • Consent
    • Use of Force
      • Impartiality
distinction between pko and peo1
Distinction between PKO and PEO

Impartiality does not denote neutrality, it is, however, a constant and may be applied as follows:

**May be considered as principled impartiality

peace operations activities
Peace Operations

Peace Keeping

Operations designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an agreement

Peace Enforcement

Operations designed

to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to establish security, peace and order

Military Operations can support Diplomatic Efforts (three areas)

Preventive Diplomacy

Diplomatic actions taken in advance to avert a crisis


Process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlement

Peace Building

Post-conflict actions, predominately diplomatic, economic, and security related that strengthen and rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions



Peace Operations Activities

Peace Operations are normally interwoven with one another…PKO being executed with Preventive Diplomacy and Peacemaking ongoing; or PKO and PEO could be ongoing in same CTF AO (but in different regions of country).

legal basis for peace operations
Legal Basis for Peace Operations
  • UN Charter – Resolutions/Mandates based on the UN Charter as a whole primarily Chapters VI, II, and VIII
  • VI – Pacific Settlement of Disputes – Addresses peaceful means
  • VII – Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of Peace, and Acts of Aggression –Addresses enforcement actions
  • VIII – Regional Arrangements – Regional arrangements to maintain peace & security
  • International Treaties/Multinational Agreements/Conventions
  • National Constitutions/Declarations/ Resolutions/Statutory Authorizations
complex emergencies contingencies
Complex Emergencies (Contingencies)
  • Since 1990, Peace Operations have moved from interstate conflicts to intrastate. Complex Emergencies are now the norm
    • Failed states - total breakdown of government institution & infrastructures
  • Term used to describe Humanitarian Operations (concurrent with PO) that have the following dimensions:
    • A complex, multi-party, intra-state conflict resulting in a humanitarian disaster which might constitute multi-dimensional risks or threats to regional and international security.
    • Peace Operations now must be executed along with the challenges of rebuilding societies, re-establishing institutions, promoting good governance.
      • Restoring infrastructure, economy, security, and reducing human suffering.
peace operations realities
Peace Operations Realities
  • Support vs. Victory: CTF Commanders and Staff are required to understand the following realities of Peace Operations
    • The military is always in support of the larger political / civil mission (military is a component of a larger effort).
    • There is neither an enemy nor a military victory. Military task is to set conditions to enable other agencies to achieve political end state.
    • Military can:
      • Temporize
      • Maintain situation
      • Reduce levels of violence
      • Induce compliance
  • Basic Mission:The military mission will revolve around establishing or maintaining a safe, secure, and stable environment.
  • Civil-Military Planning / Coordination:Identification of the civil-military tasks required by the mandate












UN / IOs / NGOs

Overall Mandate Missions




Military Mission





Ref: COE

doctrinal challenge
Doctrinal Challenge
  • The most up-to-date Peace Operations doctrine is in the MNF SOP. It was cooperatively developed by MPAT, US Army PKI, UN, COE, JFCOM, EPIC, and NPS personnel.
  • No United Nations Peace Operations doctrine
  • NATO Doctrine comes closest to addressing the issues (ATP-3.4.1)
doctrinal principles of po
Doctrinal Principles of PO
  • NATO ratified list of PSO/PO Fundamentals.
    • Civil Military Cooperation
    • Objectives
    • Security
    • Unityof Effort
    • Legitimacy
    • Impartiality
    • Consent
    • Perseverance
    • Freedom of Movement
    • Credibility
    • Flexibility
    • Use of Force
    • Transparency
    • Mutual Respect
    • Restraint

Ref: PKI

key ctf planning documents
Key CTF Planning Documents
  • Security Council Resolution (UNSCR)
  • Peace Agreement
  • Mandate
  • Status of Forces/Mission Agreement (SOFA/SOMA)
  • Terms of Reference
  • Rules of Engagement (ROE)
  • Memoranda of Understandings (MOUs)
  • Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP)

Note: These are living documents than need continuous management

Ref: PKI

security council resolution unscr
Security Council Resolution (UNSCR)
  • United Nations Security Council (UN SC) passes Resolutions that establishes the basis for the Peace Operation.
  • Peace Operations Resolutions normally contain two sections: First part contains political statements from the UN SC and the second part outlines the Mandate for the Peace Operation.
peace agreement
Peace Agreement
  • CTF Planners need to refer to any and all Peace Agreements agreed to among the parties to the conflict (past and working agreements).
  • Mandates for Peace Operations will normally refer to these Agreements and form a foundation for consent within the operation.
  • The Mandate is the central document for outlining the scope of the operation.
  • The Mandate is either contained in a UN SC Resolution, an Initiating Directive from a Regional Organization or Multinational Organization, or can be included in Warning Orders and OPORDs for the operation.
mandate requirements
Mandate Requirements
  • Also establishes the following:
    • ROE guidance
    • Legitimacy for the operation
    • Nature of the operation
    • Strategic Objectives and Political / Military end states
    • Strategic Mission and Tasks
    • Freedoms, constraints, and restraints
    • Expected Duration
    • Logistics and key supporting aspects
    • Civil-Military coordinating mechanisms
  • It is critical that a clear end statebe contained in the Mandate

CTF Key Planning Point:

The Mandate is the strategic guidance for the CTF Commander. It forms the foundation for

the initial Mission Analysis and follow on Commander’s Estimate. The Mandate

must be complete in its guidance and clear in its mission parameters (if not, planners must

seek out additional guidance and clearly establish the mission parameters).

status of forces mission agreement sofa soma
Status of Forces/Mission Agreement (SOFA/SOMA)
  • Negotiated agreements that establish the detailed legal status of PO forces – critical document.
  • Negotiated by the UN, Regional Organization, or Multinational Organization for the CTF at National levels (not a CTF action, but CTF planners may participate in development with higher headquarters).
  • Negotiated with the Host Nation and / or Affected Nation and are considered an International Agreement
terms of reference tor
Terms of Reference(TOR)
  • Developed to govern implementation of the PO
  • Based upon the situation and Mandate; may be subject to approval by the parties to the dispute (addresses details of PO)
  • Describes the mission, command relationships, organization, logistics, accounting procedures, coordination and liaison, and responsibilities or personnel assigned or detailed to the PO force (flexible document).
  • Normally written at the national level (UN, Regional or Multinational Strategic HQ) however, the potential CTF Commanders and staff may assist in initial development and need to be involved as amendments are developed
rules of engagement roe
Rules of Engagement (ROE)
  • Directives that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which CTF forces respond to, initiate or continue engagement with other forces or elements
  • Define when and how force may be used
  • Initially ROE will be established by the National Strategic / UN level of planning. However, the CTF Commanders must provide continual assessments of the threat and recommendations for adjustments as required.
  • ROE can make the difference between success and failure
    • Requires ongoing contingency planning and assessment
memoranda of understanding mous
Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs)
  • Are used to establish agreements within the CTF forces as required
  • Flexible tool to establish formal agreements as required (can supplement and / or replace TORs).
  • Can be used between nations or for the CTF force as a whole to establish procedures or processes.
  • Existing MOUs need to be identified during the CTF’s activation to determine applicability for current Mandate (can greatly assist in interoperability challenges)
cap consolidated appeals process
CAP: Consolidated Appeals Process
  • Legal Basis
    • General Assembly Resolution 46/182
    • 1994 Inter-Agency Standing Committee approved CAP Guidelines
  • Produces CHAP: Common Humanitarian Action Plan
    • Presentation of possible scenarios
    • Sectors to be addressed
    • Criteria for Prioritization
    • Relationship with other assistance programs
    • Statement of humanitarian principles
    • Long term goals