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Admin. Review. Understand the Navy under President Ford and the political and economic factors that contributed to the Carter Administration viewpoint of the Navy’s role in Military Strategy and foreign relations.

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review
Review
  • Understand the Navy under President Ford and the political and economic factors that contributed to the Carter Administration viewpoint of the Navy’s role in Military Strategy and foreign relations.
  • Know the evolution of strategic thinking and the defense policy during of the Carter Administration and the internal political factors that influenced these policies.
  • Comprehend the policy goals that preceded the Reagan defense buildup and the internal political situation that enabled it.
lesson 26

Lesson 26

The Height of the Cold War

1980-1989

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Comprehend the policy goals of the Reagan defense buildup and the internal political situation that permitted it. This includes the Goldwater-Nichols Act (1986) and its effect on the navy.
  • Comprehend the trends of public commitment during the period from 1980 to 1989 relative to the support for defense budgets, force deployments, and administration policies.
  • Know the essential elements of the “Maritime Strategy” (1986).
  • Comprehend the national strategic implications of the end of the Cold War and its effects on the US Navy,
remember our themes
Remember our Themes!
  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy
  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy
  • Interservice Relations
  • Technology
  • Leadership
  • Strategy and Tactics
  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine
iran hostage wrap up
Iran Hostage Wrap-Up
  • Hostages released on January 20, 1981, shortly after Reagan inauguration.
  • Where we once had an ally, we now had in Iran a vital enemy.
  • So we picked up a new friend...
slide7
IRAQ
  • Supported Iraq in Iran-Iraq War 1980 - 1988
  • USS Stark - May 1987
  • USS Vincennes - July 1988
reagan foreign policy
Reagan Foreign Policy
  • Soviets are bad guys bent on world domination.
  • We must build our military to combat communists and terrorists.
reagan and soviet diplomacy
Reagan and Soviet Diplomacy
  • Increased military spending (e.g., SDI)
  • Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan
reagan defense buildup
Reagan Defense Buildup
  • John F. Lehman as SecNav
  • Rickover “firing”
  • Revamping U.S. Naval Strategy
    • Establishment of the Navy Policy Board
    • The “Maritime Strategy”
    • Interventionism, Peacekeeping and Responses to Terrorism
    • Strategic Reorientation
the maritime strategy
The “Maritime Strategy”
  • Product of the Policy Board
  • Main Tenet: 600-ship Navy with carrier battle groups as centerpiece
  • Offensive outlook
  • Forward-deployed forces
criticisms to the maritime strategy
Criticisms to the “Maritime Strategy”
  • Could be very costly in terms of carrier and aircraft losses.
  • Difficult to keep SLOCs open with bulk of fleet concentrated for the forward offensive battle.
  • Potentially provocative in destabilizing nuclear balance; thereby, triggering nuclear exchange.
interventionism peacekeeping and responses to terrorism
Interventionism-Peacekeeping and Responses to Terrorism

This gave Lehman an opportunity to test and refine the naval doctrine

  • Peace-Keeping in Lebanon
  • Beirut Bombing
  • Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury)
  • Hijacking of TWA 847
  • Achille Lauro hijacking
  • Gulf of Sidra attack by USAF and USN
  • Raid on Libya- Operation “Eldorado Canyon”
  • Tanker War
  • Operation “Praying Mantis”
strategic reorientation
Strategic Reorientation
  • Nature: In reaction to defeat in Vietnam and its debilitating aftermath, the Reagan administration proclaimed that henceforth the U.S. would only fight when its national interests were clearly at stake, and it would apply overwhelming force rather than commit a limited force in increments
strategic legacy of reagan
Strategic Legacy of Reagan
  • Weinberger Doctrine
    • Be reluctant to employ force, but then use only overwhelming force
  • Powell Doctrine
    • CJCS Colin Powell, same as Weinberger
  • Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization Act
    • Elevated CJCS to principle military strategist for the nation, 1986