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hypothesis tested
Hypothesis tested
  • Since shea butter is locally made by village women from shea nuts owned by village women and wild-collected by them from village shea trees, Vitellariaparadoxa(= Butyrospermumparkii), and since shea butter is traditionally used in cooking cowpeas, shea butter is a good candidate for organic protection of cowpeas against its main storage pest, C. maculatus.
materials and methods
Materials and Methods
  • Organic cowpeas, Vigna vinculata
  • C. maculatus from cowpeas harvested in village of Sanambele, Mali
  • Environmental chamber 55+/-3% R.H.; photoperiod 12:12::light:dark; 28o C
bioassay procedures
Bioassay Procedures
  • Organic shea butter from Sanambele (Mali) women’s cooperative
  • Treatments: control (no shea butter); 0.01g; 0.05g; 0.50g; 1.0g warmed shea butter per 50g cowpeas.
  • 50 intact cowpeas randomly selected
  • 10 female C. maculatus per bioassay container
  • Post-adult emergence age specific 0-24 hrs, 24-48 hrs, 48-72 hrs
  • 4 replicates
  • Behavioral observations 1 hr, 15 da, 20 da, 25 da
  • Embryo development observations
discussion
Discussion
  • Why will adoption of shea butter to preserve cowpeas postharvest be easy for village women?
  • What does this mean for the children of this remote village?
  • Is this sustainable?
  • Are there risks to mothers or children?
  • What is the take-away message?
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Conclusion

  • As long as cowpeas are protected against C. maculatus, native villagers may safely store cowpeas and serve them, from harvest to harvest, to their children to prevent kwashiorkor.
  • Shea butter is a local, “at-home”, no-cost, safe, protection method for cowpeas in Malian villages, and throughout Sub-Saharan.
postscript
Postscript
  • Lesson #1 – Transdisciplinarity
  • Lesson #2 – Know the community