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  • Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment
  • It can also be defined as the study of ecosystems.
objectives of ecological study
Objectives Of Ecological Study

The Main Objective Of This Science Is To Study :-

  • The Inter-relationship between organisms in population and diverse communities.
  • The temporal changes in the occurrence of organisms.
  • The behavior under natural conditions.
  • The structural adaptations and functional adjustments of organisms to their physical environment
  • The development in the course of evolution.
the main objective is to apply the knowledge gained to safeguard against disasters caused by
The Main Objective Is To Apply The Knowledge Gained To Safeguard Against Disasters Caused By :-
  • Uncontrolled interference with natural populations.
  • Unchecked felling of trees.
  • Environmental Pollution.
  • An Ecosystem is defined as a natural functional ecological unit comprising of living organisms and their non-living environment that interact to form a stable self supporting system.
  • The Interaction between biotic community and its environment to produce a stable system; a natural self-sufficient unit is known as ecosystem
  • A pond, lake , grassland, meadow, forest etc are common examples of ecosystems.
structure of ecosystem
Structure Of Ecosystem
  • Composition and organization of biological communities and abiotic components constitute the structure of an ecosystem.

It consists of :-

    • Biotic Structure
    • Abiotic Structure
  • are mainly green plants which can synthesize food themselves by making use of C02 present in the air and water in the presence of sunlight.
  • They also involve a green pigment called chlorophyll , already present in the leaves, through the process of photosynthesis
  • Hence they are called photo- autotrophs.
  • All organisms which get their organic food by feeding upon other organisms are called consumers.
  • They are of following types depending upon their mode if nutrition:-
    • Herbivores
    • Carnivores
    • Omnivores
    • Saprotrophs
  • They derive their nutrition by breaking down the complex organic molecules to simpler organic compounds and ultimately into inorganic nutrients.
  • Various bacteria and fungi are decomposers.
  • They are predominant in deep ocean.
physical factors
Physical Factors
  • The sunlight and shade, intensity of solar flux, duration of sun hours, average temperature, maximum-minimum temperature, annual rainfall, wind, latitude, soil type, water availability etc are some important features which have a strong influence on our ecosystem.
  • They vary from ecosystems to ecosystems.
    • For E.g.. Solar Flux and Temperature vary in a desert ecosystem and in a tropical ecosystem.
chemical factors
Chemical Factors
  • Availability of major essential nutrients like
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen,
    • Hydrogen,
    • Phosphorous
  • level of toxic substances,
  • salts causing salinity
  • and various organic substances present in the soil influence the functioning of ecosystem
types of ecosystem
Types Of Ecosystem
  • Forest Ecosystem
  • Grassland ecosystem
  • Desert Ecosystem
  • Aquatic ecosystem
deciduous forest
Deciduous Forest
  • Large, flat leaves that drop off in the Fall, new leaves grow in Spring.
  • Leaves change color with the seasons.
  • These trees grow in places that have warm, wet summers and cold winters.


tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forest


  • These trees grow in places that are hot and wet all year.
  • Trees are very tall and the leaves are always green.
  • The forest has three layers.


Forest floor

coastal forest
Coastal Forest
  • Grows in places where there is lots of rain.
  • Temperature is not too hot or too cold, just cool.
  • Has three layers just like the rain forest: canopy, understory, forest floor.
coniferous forest
Coniferous Forest
  • Grows in places with very cold winters and cool summers.
  • The leaves look like needles so they don’t need very much water.
  • Seeds grow in cones.
  • Get less rain than all the other forests.

Seed cone

desert ecosystem
Desert Ecosystem
  • The region where evaporation exceeds precipitation are called deserts.
  • Precipitation is usually less than 25cm per year.
  • About 1/3 of the world is covered in deserts.
  • The Atmosphere is very dry and hence it’s a poor insulator, so the soil gets cooled up quickly at night.
based on the climatic conditions desert ecosystems are of 3 types
Based on the climatic conditions, Desert Ecosystems are of 3 types.
  • Tropical Deserts.

Sahara in Africa & Thar in Rajasthan are the driest tropical deserts.

  • Cold Deserts.

Gobi Desert in China has warm summers and cold winters

  • Temperate Deserts.

Mojave Desert in southern California has hot days and cold nights.

components of desert ecosystem
Components Of Desert Ecosystem
  • Abiotic Components

It includes nutrient present in soil and aerial environments.

  • Biotic Components

* Producers :-

There are shrubs , some grasses and a few trees.

* Consumers:-

Reptiles, insects, rodents, birds, camels.

* Decomposers:-

They are very few as due to poor vegetation, amount of dead organic matter is less. Some fungi and some bacteria are included

in this category.

aquatic ecosystems
Aquatic Ecosystems

A Pond

A Lake

A Stream

A River

a pond
A Pond
  • A pond is a small body of fresh or salt water that is surrounded by land. The water is mostly still and some ponds freeze in winter or dry up during drier weather. A pond can sustain a wide range of life, from micro-organisms to mammals. Some animals live on top of the water, some live in the water, some near the water.
  • Plants and animals that that live in or near the pond have special adaptations, or ways to survive in their environment.
a lake
A Lake
  • A lake is a large body of water that is surrounded by land.
  • Some lakes are salt water, while others are fresh water.
  • Lakes get their water from rain and some are fed by rivers and streams
a stream a river
A Stream/A River
  • A stream or a river is a long body of moving water. Rivers and streams get their water from rain, but also from melting snow and ice in the mountains.
  • The longest river in the world is the Nile River in Africa. It is over 4,000 miles long and flows through nine countries.
  • Plants and animals that which live near rivers also have special adaptations to survive their environment.
  • Some plants have thick strong roots to prevent erosion and keep the plants from washing away.
  • Fallen vegetation transfers nutrients to the aquatic life and the shade surrounding streams or rivers mitigates change in the water temperature, creating optimal conditions for many living things to thrive.
estuary ecosystem
Estuary ecosystem
  • An estuary is a partially closed coastal area at the mouth of a river where fresh water and salty sea water meets.
  • It is strongly affected by tidal action.
  • Constant mixing of water stirs up all the silt and makes the nutrient available to the producers.
  • Since the tidal currents vary diurnally, monthly and seasonally, so the organisms show a tolerance to the different conditions of temperature and salinity . Such organisms are called Eurythermal or Euryhaline.

Unfortunaltely, estuarties were not seen as valuable and were seen as dumps.

  • But now scientists have discovered their worth since these regions are rich in nutrients due to sediment deposits of rivers.
  • Hence, these ecosystems need to be managed judiciously and should be protected from any type of pollution.