aristotle spoken words are the symbols of your mental experiences n.
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  1. Aristotle – “Spoken words are the symbols of your mental experiences.”

  2. If your spoken words are NOT the same, do cultures have different mental experiences based on their languages?

  3. YES We experience the world differently, therefore, we use language to express our experiences differently.

  4. Language, no matter what language, is a taken for granted aspect of people’s lives AND does not have to make sense.

  5. German Schadenfreude

  6. German Drachenfutter

  7. Scottish sgiomlaireachd

  8. Russian Efficiency Challenge Engagement ring Have fun

  9. ENGLISH 615,000 GERMAN 184,000 FRENCH 100,000

  10. WORDS THAT ENGLISH SPEAKERS HAVE ADOPTED BRONCO RODEO C’EST LA VIE DEJA VUE PIANO SPAGEHTII KIMONO BARBEQUE

  11. House Home FRENCH

  12. FINE • 14 Definitions as an adjective • 6 as a noun • 2 as an adverb • Fills 2 pages in the dictionary and takes 5,000 words to explain

  13. FINE • Fine Art • Feeling Fine • Court Fine • Fine Hair

  14. SOUND • Audible Noise • State of Healthiness (Sound Mind) • An Outburst (Sound Off) • Body of Water

  15. Eskimos: 50 words related to Snow • Arabs: 600 words related to camels • Italians: 500 words related to pasta • Germans: 70 words related to beer • Maoris: 35 words related to dung • Araqucanian: 20 words related to being hungry Next

  16. Back

  17. GANA AKILUKAK APUT KAGUKLAICH PIGSIRPOG GIMUGSUG FALLING SNOW FLUFFY FALLEN SNOW SNOW ON GROUND SNOW DRIFTED IN ROWS DRIFTING SNOW SNOWDRIFT ESKIMO LANGUAGE Back

  18. We experience the world differently and we express those experiences in our language.

  19. Our Cultural Values are Reflected in: • What we choose to talk about • How we choose to express ourselves

  20. Do people who speak different languages have different thought processes (not experiences)?

  21. NO If you moved to Alaska and experience snow and learned their language, you could process the different categories.

  22. Until the early 1900’s language was assumed to be a neutral medium that did not influence the way people experienced the world.

  23. Sapir – Whorf Hypothesis Language is not just an instrument for voicing ideas but is itself the shaper of ideas, the guide for the individuals mental activity.

  24. Sapir Whorf Hypothesis • Firmer • Softer

  25. Sapir – Whorf Hypothesis Firmer – Language functions like a PRISON Once you learn a language, you are irrevocably affected by the particular of that language.

  26. Sapir Whorf Hypothesis • Firmer • Softer

  27. Sapir – Whorf Hypothesis Softer – Language SHAPES how people think and experience the world, yet it is possible to learn words and categories sufficiently similar to your first language so that communication can be accurate.

  28. Vocabulary + GrammarDifferences in a Language • Vocabulary a. Eskimo b. Arabic c. Dani d. Kamayura 2. Grammar a. Tense + Possessives b. Pronouns

  29. Lost in Translation • German – Ich bin ein Berliner • South America – Nova • Portuguese – Rendezvous lounges • Chinese – Coca-Cola ke kou ke la • Japan – Coke adds life Coke brings ancestors back to life Next

  30. Back

  31. Idioms: Meaning Contrary • U.S. Idioms • Japanese Idioms • Irish Idioms • Jargon: Common to a Profession • Argot: Used by Co-cultural Next

  32. US IDIOMS • Bite the bullet • Don’t have a cow • Get off my back • Whistle blower • On the fence Back

  33. JAPANESE IDIOMS • The nail that sticks up gets hammered • Like pounding a nail into tofu • He has a higher nose Back

  34. IRISH IDIOMS • There’ll be wigs on the green • They left us in the ha’ penny place • He’s only winding you Back

  35. DIALECTS DISTINGUISH COMMUNITIES It is a form of a spoken language peculiar to a specific region or social group.

  36. DIALECTS VARY • From rural to urban • From one social group to another • From one ethnic group to another

  37. THREE REASONS WHY UNDERSTANDING DIALETS IS IMPORTANT • Clarity • Evaluations • Standard American Dialect Next

  38. CLARITY Back

  39. EVALUATIONS Back

  40. AMERICAN STANDARD DIALECTS Back

  41. CODE SWITCHING • Setting • Conversational Partner • Topic