Unit 7 Approaching Culture. 湖北第二师范学院 外语系 钱俊. Teaching aims ：. to train the students’ ability to understand the general idea of the listening texts about the well-renowned museums, Kwanzaa, etc., and help them grasp the important details.
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Unit 7Approaching Culture 湖北第二师范学院 外语系 钱俊
Teaching aims： • to train the students’ ability to understand the general idea of the listening texts about the well-renowned museums, Kwanzaa, etc., and help them grasp the important details. • to develop students’ ability to summarize the key points and main ideas of the long listening material which talks about the changes in some modern museums. • to learn some new words and expressions to enrich vocabulary, especially the words and expressions in Language study and language appreciation.
Teaching equipments: • language lab with computer and multimedia projector
Time allocation: • One and a half classes (135 minutes) are needed involving with four parts for the whole unit. • For the first period (45minutes): focus on Part I and Part II • For the second period (45minutes): focus on Part II and Part III • For the third period (45minutes): focus on Part III and Part IV
Part 1 Warming up • Requirements of listening course. Develop the habit of extensive listening after class --- listen to English tapes, English radio programs, English songs etc., watch English films, log on to the websites to practice listening (Chinadaily website, listeningexpress website, 普特听力网etc.) • Ask students to talk about their visit to some museums, and if possible students can bring some pictures or souvenirs as to share their pleasant sight feast with others.
1. symbol noun [C] n.符号,标志,象征 • ① a sign, shape or object which is used to represent something else: • eg. The dove is the symbol of peace. 鸽子是和平的象征。 • eg. The Cross is the symbol of Christianity. 十字架是基督教的象征。 • ② something that is used to represent a quality or idea: • eg. Water, a symbol of life, recurs as an image throughout her poems. • ③ a number, letter or sign used in mathematics, music, science, etc: eg. The symbol for oxygen is O2. • ④ an object can be described as a symbol of something else if it seems to represent it because it is connected with it in a lot of people's minds: • eg. He only bought the yacht as a status symbol he hates sailing. • 他买游艇只是为了显示身分, 其实他根本不喜欢玩游艇.
2. evena. 平坦的,偶数的,相等的forming a whole number which can be divided exactly by two:eg.6 is an even number and 7 is an odd number. • eg. I'd say the two players are pretty even. • 我认为这两个选手不相上下。 • eg. He won the first game and I won the second, so now we are even. • 他赢了第一局，我赢了第二局，所以我们现在打平。
3. set noun [C] n. 一套,一副a group of similar things that belong together in some way:eg.We bought Charles and Mandy a set of cutlery as a wedding present.eg.I always keep a tool set in the back of my car.eg.The doctor said that he hadn't seen this particular set of symptoms before. • 4. Argentina[ˌɑ:dʒən'ti:nə] n. 阿根廷 • a republic in southern South America; second largest country in South America • Argentine adjective
5. greet verb 致敬,欢迎,映入眼帘 • to welcome someone with particular words or a particular action, or to react to something in the stated way • eg. I greet you in the name of the President. • 我代表总统前来迎接您。 • eg. I woke up and was greeted by bird song. • 我一觉醒来，鸟鸣之声不绝于耳。 • 6. traditional传统的;（有关）传统、惯例、教义的或与此一致的 • Of, relating to, or in accord with tradition • eg. the traditional handshake; a traditional wedding ceremony. • 惯例性的握手；传统婚娶典礼
7. hug verb & n. • to hold someone or something close to your body with your arms, usually to show that you like, love or value them; a tight or amorous embrace • eg. She gave her mother an affectionate hug. • 她紧紧拥抱著她的母亲。 • eg. The president hugged himself with pleasure over the quick withdrawal from the gulf war. • 总统为自己能从海湾战争中见好就收感到暗自庆幸。 • eg. She sat on the floor hugging her knees (= with her knees bent up against her chest and her arms around them). • eg. Whenever I travel in the city I make sure I hug my handbag tightly to me.
8. Brazil n. 巴西 • the largest Latin American country and the largest Portuguese speaking country in the world; located in the central and northeastern part of South America; world's leading coffee exporter • 9. Canada n. 加拿大 • a nation in northern North America; the French were the first Europeans to settle in mainland Canada • 10. Egypt n. 埃及 • a republic in northeastern Africa known as the United Arab Republic until 1971; site of an ancient civilization that flourished from 2600 to 30 BC
11. Japan n. 日本 • a constitutional monarchy occupying the Japanese Archipelago; a world leader in electronics and automobile manufacture and ship building • 12. Korea n. 韩国 • an Asian peninsula (off Manchuria) separating the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan; the Korean name is Dae-Han-Min-Gook or Han-Gook • 13. Mexico n. 墨西哥 • a republic in southern North America; became independent from Spain in 1810
Key to this part: • A. People in all countries enjoy gifts. Sometimes the meanings are different in different cultures. Listen to the following dialogues and look at the pictures below. If it is not a proper gift in a certain country for an ordinary friend, cross out (×) the picture and check (√) the correct reason why it is not a proper gift.
1. Argentina • √ A tie is too personal Plants are not easy to look after. • 2. Switzerland • Candy isn’t healthy √ Ross mean love. • 3. Italy • Odd numbers (1,3, 5 etc.) are unlucky. • √ Even number (2, 4, 6, etc.) are unlucky. • 4. Japan • Pen and pencil sets are unpopular. • √ Japanese people usually don’t give four of anything.
Tapescript for this part • 1. Argentina • Woman: This is interesting. Did you know that in Argentina you should never give clothing unless you know the person really well? • Man: Don’t give clothing? Why not? • Woman: Clothing --- even things like ties --- are too personal. Only good friends give them. • Man: Huh? I never thought of a tie as being personal … just uncomfortable. What should you bring? • Woman: I don’t know. Maybe something for the house.
2. Switzerland • Man: We’re meeting Mr. Mertz and his wife for dinner. Maybe I should bring flowers or something … Yeah, I’ll pick up some red roses. • Woman: You don’t want to bring roses. In Switzerland, they could be a symbol of love and romance. • Man: Oh, I didn’t know that. • Woman: I think candy or chocolate might be better.
3. Italy • Woman: I’d some flowers. Uh …those. About ten, I guess. • Man: Ma’am, I don’t think you should give ten flowers. In Italy, even numbers ─ 2,4,6, and so on ─ are bad luck. • Woman: Even numbers are bad luck? OK, I’ll take nine flowers then.
4. Japan • Woman: May I help you? • Man: I’m going to stay with a family in Japan. I need to get something for them. • Woman: Pen sets are always a good gift. • Man: Oh, that’s a good idea. Let’s see … There are sets with a pen and pencil … and bigger sets with four pens. • Woman: Don’t give a set of four pens ─ in face, don’t give four of anything. It’s bad luck. The Japanese word for “four” sounds like the word for “death”. • Man: Thanks for telling me. I’ll take the pen and pencil set. • Woman: Good choice. These sets make very good gifts. After all, pens write in any language! • Man: Uh … yeah. Right.
B. There are many ways in the world to greet people. Listen to a few examples of greetings from some countries. Choose correct answers for each greeting. • 1. a bow: Japan, Korea • 2. a hug: Brazil, Russia • 3. a strong, short handshake: Canada, the U.S. • 4. a softer, longer handshake: Egypt, Mexico
Tapescript: • A bow • Around the world, there are many different ways to greet people. Bowing is the traditional way of greeting in Northeast Asian countries like Korea and Japan. This picture, for example, shows how Japanese women bow. In Japan, when you bow, you don’t look directly at the other person’s eyes. But in Korea it’s important to see the other person’s face when you bow. In both countries, people bow to show respect.
A hug • When good friends meet in Russia, they often hug each other. This is true for both women and men. Russia isn’t the only place where friends hug. In Brazil, for example, friends also hug each other in greeting. In Brazil, the hug is called an abraco. • A strong, short handshake • You know how to shake hands. This is common in many countries. But it isn’t always done the same way. In the United States and Canada, for example, people usually give a strong, short handshake. It’s short but rather firm.
A softer, longer handshake • In many other countries, people also shake hands. But they do it differently from in the U. S. and Canada. In Mexico and in Egypt, for example, many people ─ especially men ─ shake hands. Mexican and Egyptian handshakes usually last a little longer. The handshake is softer ─ not as strong.
Vocabulary for this part: • 1. museum博物馆noun [C] • a building where objects of historical, scientific or artistic interest are kept; a depository for collecting and displaying objects having scientific or historical or artistic value • 2. reproduction n. 再现,复制品 • a copy of something, especially a painting, or the process of copying something • eg. This is not the original; it's only a cheap reproduction. • 这不是原作，它只不过是廉价的复制品。
3. guided tour由导游带领的旅行团 • eg. I am going on a guided tour around the mountain city. • 我打算在这山城作一次配导游的旅游。 • 4. educational service教育机构
5. privileged ['privilidʒd] a. 有特权的 • having an advantage that only one person or group of people has, usually because of their position or because they are rich an advantage that only one person or group of people has, usually because of their position or because they are rich • eg. As an ambassador, she enjoys a very privileged status. • eg. On an occasion such as this (ie as important as this) we are privileged to welcome... • 在这样重要的场合, 我们有幸能欢迎...
6. vacationer noun [C] (US)度假者, 休假者= holidaymaker (UK) • a person who is on holiday away from where they usually live; someone on vacation; someone who is devoting time to pleasure or relaxation rather than to work
7. metropolitan [metrə'pɔlit(ə)n] • n. 大都市的居民,大主教,母国的居民 • a. 大都市的,大主教区的,母国的 • a person who lives in a metropolis, a very large city, often the most important city in a large area or country; in the Eastern Orthodox Church this title is given to a position between bishop and patriarch; equivalent to archbishop in western Christianity • eg. He was drawn to the metropolitan glamour and excitement of Paris. • eg. Metropolitan new york cover200 square mile. • 纽约大都市覆盖面积达200平方英里。 • eg. She left the small island and became famous in metropolitan France. • 她离开小岛而在法国的大都市中成名。
8. costume ['kɔstju:m, -'tju:m] n. 服装,剧装 • A prevalent fashion of dress, including garments, accessories, and hairstyle; A style of dress characteristic of a particular country, period, or people, often worn in a play or at a masquerade. • eg. She wore an antique gown to the costume party. • 她穿着一件过时的长袍参加化妆舞会。
9. Stegosaurus n.〈古生物〉剑龙 • herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur with a row of bony plates along its back and a spiked tail probably used as a weapon • dinosaur • Any of various extinct, often gigantic, carnivorous or herbivorous reptiles of the orders Saurischia and Ornithischia that were chiefly terrestrial and existed during the Mesozoic era. • 恐龙：一种主要生活在中生代时期的陆栖动物，是庞大的食肉或食草爬行类动物，属龙盘目与鸟盘目，已绝种
10. Architecture['ɑ:kitektʃə] n. 建筑学, 建筑业; [总称]建筑物, 建筑风格the profession of designing buildings and environments with consideration for their esthetic effect; the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings • eg. The Forbidden City is one of the world's greatest works of architecture. • 紫禁城是世界上最伟大的建筑之一。
11. represent [ˌri:pri'zent] vt. 表现,表示,描绘,代表 • take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to; stand for • eg. The rose represents England. • 玫瑰花是英格兰的象徵。 • eg. The king is represented as a villain in the play. • 在这出剧中把国王刻画成一个反面人物。 • 12. lifestyle n. 生活方式 • a manner of living that reflects the person's values and attitudes • eg. He's decided to throw over the lifestyle he's been used to in his parents' home, and go his own way. • 他决定抛弃自己已习惯在的在父母身边的生活方式而开始自己的生活方式。
13. Stockholm斯德哥尔摩：瑞典首都及最大城市，位于该国东部，邻波罗的海，建于13世纪中期，后发展成与汉撒同盟结盟的贸易中心斯德哥尔摩于1523年后成为瑞典王国的首席城市，但直到1634年才成为正式的首都诺贝尔学院座落于此。人口653,455 • The capital and largest city of Sweden, in the eastern part of the country on the Baltic Sea. Founded in the mid-13th century, it grew as a trade center allied with the Hanseatic League. Stockholm was the leading city of the kingdom of Sweden after 1523 but did not become the official capital until 1634. The Nobel Institute is here. Population, 653,455.
14. Ontario缩写 ON， Ont.安大略省：加拿大中东部的一个省，1867年加入联盟。最初是在17世纪由法国探险家发现，1763年转入英国人手里，1774年成为魁北克省的一部分。在1791年脱离魁北克省时称为上层加拿大（之后称下层），在1841年和下层加拿大合并成为一个具有联盟形式的独立省份。多伦多是其首府，也是最大的城市。人口8,625,107 • Abbr. ON, Ont. A province of east-central Canada. It joined the confederation in 1867. First visited by French explorers in the early 1600's, it passed to the British in 1763 and became part of the province of Quebec in 1774. It was called Upper Canada after its division from Quebec (then Lower Canada) in 1791. Reunited with Lower Canada in 1841, it became a separate province with the formation of the confederation. Toronto is the capital and the largest city. Population, 8,625,107.
15. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC大都会美术馆(纽约市的一所著名艺术博物馆) • One of the world's premier cultural institutions, The Metropolitan Museum of Art acquires artwork (prehistoric to present-day) from around the world. With more than 2 million pieces in its collection, the Met hosts exhibits, loans artwork to other museums, publishes books and catalogs, and develops educational programs for all ages.
16. American Museum of Natural History, NYC自然历史博物馆(它是纽约市一所著名博物馆) • The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark on the Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York, USA. The museum has a scientific staff of more than 200, and sponsors over 100 special field expeditions each year.
A. Listen to some statements taken from a passage on the changes in today’s museums. Supply the missing information. • 1. Museums have changed. They are no longer places for the privileged few or for bored vacationers to visit on rainy days. • 2. More and more museum directors are realizing that people learn best when they can somehow become part of what they are seeing. • 3. The purpose is not only to provide fun but also to help people feel at home in the world of science.
B. Now listen to the whole passage. While listening, pay special attention to the specific museums mentioned in the passage. Complete the following chart with key words.
C. Now listen again and complete the outline according to the information given on the tape. • The Major Changes in Museums in the Modern World • I. Reaching out to new audiences • A. the young • B. the poor • C. the less educated members
II. Appearance • A. old museums: rebuilt • B. newer ones: • 1. modern in architecture • 2. inside the museums • a. modern lighting, color and sound • b. showing fewer objects • c. display of a group of objects to represent lifestyle
III. Helping visitors become part of what they see • A. no guided tours • B. encouraging visitors to touch, listen, operate and experiment / discover scientific principles for themselves • IV. Providing educational services and children’s departments • A. film show • B. dance programs
Tapescript for this part: • Museums have changed. They are no longer places for the privileged few or for bored vacationers to visit on rainy days. • At a science museum in Ontario, Canada, you can feel your hair stand on end as harmless electricity passes through your body. At the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, you can look at 17th century instruments while listening to their music. At the Modern Museum in Sweden, you can put on costumes provided by the Stockholm Opera. At New York’s American Museum of Natural History recently, you could have helped make a bone-by-bone reproduction of the museum’s stegosaurus, a beast that lived 200 million years ago.
Tapescript for this part: • As these examples show, museums are reaching out to new audiences, particularly the young, the poor, and the less educated members of the population. As a result, attendance is increasing. • Many museums have changed in appearance. Some of the old, gray museums have been rebuilt, and the newer ones are open and modern in their architecture. Inside, there is modern lighting, color, and sound. Instead of displaying everything they own, museum directors show fewer objects and leave open spaces where visitors can gather and sit down. They also bring together in one display a group of objects drawn from various parts of the museum in an effort to represent the whole lifestyle of a region or a historical period. In one room, for instance, you may find materials, clothing, tools, cooking pots, furniture, and art works of a particular place and time.
Tapescript for this part: • More and more museum directors are realizing that people learn best when they can somehow become part of what they are seeing. In many science museums, for example, there are no guided tours. The visitor is encouraged to touch, listen, operate, and experiment so as to discover scientific principles for himself. He can have the experience of operating a spaceship or a computer. He can experiment with glass blowing and papermaking. The purpose is not only to provide fun but also to help people feel at home in the world of science. The theory is that people who do not understand science will probably fear it, and those who fear science will not use it to best advantage. • Many museums now provide educational services and children’s departments. In addition to the usual displays, they also offer film showings and dance programs. Instead of being places that one “should” visit, they places to enjoy.
Kwanzaa宽扎节 即果实初收节。它是非裔美国人的节日，共七天，从12月26日至1月1日。源自非洲传统的收获节，以烛光仪式揭开序幕，每天点燃一支蜡烛，象征非裔美国人的七个原则 • a festival featuring African-American culture celebrated between Christmas and New Year lasting from December 26 to January 1 • Kwanzaa is a week-long holiday celebrated throughout the world, honoring African heritage, marked by participants lighting a kinara (candle holder). It is observed from December 26 to January 1 each year. Kwanzaa consists of seven days of celebration, featuring activities such as candle-lighting and pouring of libations, and culminating in a feast and gift giving. It was created by Maulana Karenga and first celebrated from December 26, 1966, to January 1, 1967.
2. cooperative (UK ALSO co-operative) adjective合作的 • willing to help or do what people ask: • eg. I've asked them not to play their music so loudly, but they're not being very cooperative. • eg. The management would like to thank the staff for being so cooperative. • 资方要感谢全体员工的通力合作。 • candleholder ['kændlˌhəʊldə(r)] n. 烛台
4. Swahili • 斯瓦希里人：穆斯林民族中的主要一支，居住在东非从索马里到莫桑比克的沿海和岛屿上 • A member of a predominantly Moslem people inhabiting the coast and islands of eastern Africa from Somalia to Mozambique. • The Bantu language of the Swahili that is the official language of Tanzania and is widely used as a lingua franca in eastern and east-central Africa.Also called In this sense, also called Kiswahili • 斯瓦希里语：作为坦桑尼亚官方语言的斯瓦希里班图语，在东非或中东非被广泛地用作通用交际语言也作 在此意义上也可称作 Kiswahili • The following passage is about an African-American celebration called Kwanzaa. Listen carefully and fill in the missing information so as to get a clear picture of what Kwanzaa is about.
Key to this part: • I. When and where Kwanzaa began • In 1966, in Los Angeles • I I. The purpose of Kwanzaa • To honor black culture, especially, the importance of the family • I I I. The word “Kwanzaa”From what language is the word Kwanzaa? • A. language: Swahili • B. meaning: first fruits of the harvest