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EARLY YEARS & PRIMARY YEARS Scales 1 – 9 PowerPoint Presentation
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EARLY YEARS & PRIMARY YEARS Scales 1 – 9 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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EARLY YEARS & PRIMARY YEARS Scales 1 – 9
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  1. ESL SCOPE AND SCALES EARLY YEARS & PRIMARY YEARS Scales 1 – 9

  2. Model of Language Text in Context Sociocultural Context Genre Situational Context Tenor Field Mode

  3. Field Continuum everyday fields……..specialised fields……highly technical fields

  4. Tenor Continuum equal status ……………….…………..….. great difference in status familiar …….………………………………...……………..very distant great deal of emotional expression……..little emotional expression

  5. Mode continuum most spoken………………….…………….....… most written

  6. Text in Context Sociocultural Context Genre Genre Situational Context Situational Context Tenor Tenor Mode Field Mode Field Model of Language Language Sociocultural Context

  7. Text in Context Language Sociocultural Context Genre • broader strand • more specific strand • resources in the English language Situational Context Field Tenor Mode

  8. Text in Context Language Sociocultural Context Genre • range of genres • purposes • structure • language choices - • structure texts • build cohesion • expand sentences Situational Context Field • informational element • everyday to technical vocabulary • verbs • noun groups • nominalisations • circumstances • topic specific vocabulary Tenor • interpersonal element • formality to familiarity • modality • evaluation • speech functions • idioms • non-verbal elements Mode • textual element • spoken to written • multimodal texts • foregrounding • coherence • voice and tense • print conventions

  9. Text in Context Language range of genres purposes structure Sociocultural Context Genre • range of genres • specific purposes • structure • cohesion • language choices - • structure texts • cohesive Situational Context Field • the ‘what’, or content • its informational elements • range from everyday to technical vocabulary • word groups and phrases • the verbs • participants • circumstances Tenor • the ‘who’ • interpersonal elements • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude • the language choices • who questions or commands • how degrees of certainty expressed. Mode • the ‘how’ • its textual elements • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts • the language choices -organise texts • focus foregrounding

  10. Text in Context Language language choices - structure texts build cohesion expand sentences • language choices - • structure texts • expand sentences • build cohesion Sociocultural Context Genre • the range of genres • purposes • structure Situational Context Field • the ‘what’, or content • its informational elements • range from everyday to technical vocabulary • word groups and phrases • the verbs • participants • circumstances Tenor • the ‘who’ • interpersonal elements • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude • the language choices • who questions or commands • how degrees of certainty expressed. Mode • the ‘how’ • its textual elements • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts • the language choices -organise texts • focus foregrounding

  11. Genre: Scale 1 • (towards) copying very short groups of words

  12. S: Good morning, good morning everyone. All: Good morning everyone S: My mum buy for me a gun T: A gun? What do you do with that? S: and Barbie and car T: Whoo! Do you enjoy playing with those? S: nods (goes and sits down) Genre: Scale 2 • participates in basic spoken exchanges depending on memorising segments • responds in basic spoken exchanges involving two or three turns • uses one or two examples of pronoun reference

  13. Genre: Scale 3 • constructs elementary examples of basic genres by speaking and writing with a high degree of scaffolding • demonstrates an understanding of the structure of several basic genres • uses basic pronouns: I, my

  14. Genre: Scale 4 • organises the meanings in brief written texts in a logical order • writes several pieces of information about a living thing • topic words at the front of sentences in a report • begins to expand information using linking conjunctions: and, but • uses a limited range of cohesive resources: possessive pronouns, third person pronouns, demonstrative pronouns

  15. ORAL RECOUNT Teacher: You can say good morning to everybody. Johnny: Good morning everyone. Everyone: Good morning Johnny. Johnny: My name is Johnny and I am 10 years old… and… Sunday I woke up I had breakfast…I had breakfast.. then I…I play…with my brother… cricket and my friend… next I…had my dinner. I ate fries… and… meat… round… like a thing. Teacher: What colour is it? Johnny: It’s green. Teacher: Green peas. Is it a vegetable? Yes? Green peas, vegetables? Johnny: Yes. After that I went to bed. • Genre: Scale 5 • constructs short spoken exchanges relying on memorising initiating moves only

  16. Genre: Scale 5 • phrases of time and place to structure recounts • linking conjunctions: and then, but, or, so • binding conjunctions: because • small range of reference items

  17. Genre: Scale 6 • reads explanations and begins to write brief examples • use conjunctions to organise texts • a range of linking conjunctions: then, but, or, so and • a range of binding conjunctions:because, when, before, after • reference items

  18. Genre: Scale 7 • reads longer more complex sequential explanations and simple charts and begins to write short examples • organise meanings in short simple paragraphs • use conjunctions to organise texts: Second, Next • linking conjunctions: and, but, or, so, then • binding conjunctions: when, if, while

  19. Genre: Scale 8 • uses a limited range of features that organise a text: • -phrases of time and place • begins to use a small range of relative pronouns • reference items

  20. Genre: Scale 9 • more than one complication • binding conjunctions: as, as if, since, because, because if • reference items • synonyms, antonyms • synonyms, antonyms: didn’t worry, scared

  21. Task: • Look at your text and using the criteria from the previous slides or the criteria in the Scales, determine an approximate ESL Scale for genre. • Decide on some teaching priorities for this student, to develop genre.

  22. Text in Context Language Sociocultural Context Genre • the range of genres • specific purposes • structure and cohesion • language choices - • structure texts • cohesive • informational element • everyday to highly technical Situational Context Field • language choices - • structure texts • expand sentences • build cohesion • word groups and phrases • the verbs • participants • circumstances Tenor • the ‘who’ • interpersonal elements • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude • the language choices • who questions or commands • how degrees of certainty expressed. Mode • the ‘how’ • its textual elements • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts • the language choices -organise texts • focus foregrounding

  23. Text in Context Language Sociocultural Context Genre • the range of genres • specific purposes • structure and cohesion • language choices - • structure texts • cohesive • verbs • noun groups • nominalisations • circumstances • topic specific vocabulary Situational Context Field • informational element • everyday to technical vocabulary • the verbs • participants • circumstances Tenor • the ‘who’ • interpersonal elements • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude • the language choices • who questions or commands • how degrees of certainty expressed. Mode • the ‘how’ • its textual elements • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts • the language choices -organise texts • focus foregrounding

  24. S: Good morning, good morning everyone. All: Good morning everyone S: My mum buy for me a gun T: A gun? What do you do with that? S: and Barbie and car T: Whoo! Do you enjoy playing with those?S: nods (goes and sits down) • Field: Scale 2 • uses vocabulary that is mainly commonsense but chooses isolated concrete technical vocabulary • understands small range of vocabulary expressing immediate interest: • common noun groups • common actions

  25. Well the story was about as a little fish and one... boy to go to school and he walk in the jungle and he pass in the big tree and he sit, he, he, he...sit on the thing on the ground and he look to the water and he see some fish and when he come to school he.. he make some boat and when he come into the jungle too, he put some fish on the boat and it the boat and the little boy the boat on the water Field Scale 3 • uses very basic phrases of location • expands vocabulary by describing according to size

  26. Field Scale 3 • uses vocabulary that is mainly commonsense but chooses some concrete technical vocabulary • expands vocabulary using numbers, describers, classifiers

  27. Field: Scale 4 • uses vocabulary that is commonsense but begins to use some technical vocabulary • uses very basic phrases expressing circumstances

  28. Field: Scale 4 • uses technical vocabulary for educational fields such as science • uses very basic circumstances • expands vocabulary using numbers, describers, classifiers

  29. Field: Scale 6 • verbs • actions • mental • circumstances • location • manner • noun groups • describers

  30. Field: Scale 6 • noun groups: number, qualifier • technical vocabulary • direct and indirect speech

  31. Field: Scale 7 • noun groups: • describers • classifiers • verbs: • action • relational • circumstances: • location • time • technical vocabulary

  32. Field: Scale 8 • common nominalisations • noun groups: describers, classifiers, prepositional phrases as qualifiers • circumstances: manner • technical vocabulary

  33. Field: Scale 9 More delicate choices • noun groups • verbs: • action • relational • mental • circumstances: • - manner • nominalisations

  34. Task: • Look at your text and using the criteria from the previous slides or the criteria in the Scales, determine the Scale for Field. • Decide on some teaching priorities for this student, to develop Field.

  35. Text in Context Language Sociocultural Context Genre • the range of genres • specific purposes • structure and cohesion • language choices - • structure texts • cohesive Situational Context Field • the ‘what’, or content • its informational elements • range from everyday to technical vocabulary • word groups and phrases • the verbs • participants • circumstances • interpersonal element • familiar to formal Tenor • the ‘who’ • interpersonal elements • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude • the language choices • who questions or commands • how degrees of certainty expressed. Mode • the ‘how’ • its textual elements • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts • the language choices -organise texts • focus foregrounding

  36. Text in Context Language Sociocultural Context Genre • the range of genres • specific purposes • structure and cohesion • language choices - • structure texts • cohesive Situational Context Field • the ‘what’, or content • its informational elements • range from everyday to technical vocabulary • word groups and phrases • the verbs • participants • circumstances • modality • appraisal/evaluation • speech functions • idioms • non-verbal elements Tenor • interpersonal element • formality, familiarity and attitude • non-verbal elements • speech functions • modality • attitudinal lexis • idioms Mode • the ‘how’ • its textual elements • deal with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts • the language choices -organise texts • focus foregrounding

  37. S: Good morning, good morning everyone. All: Good morning everyone S: My mum buy for me a gun T: A gun? What do you do with that? S: and Barbie and car T: Whoo! Do you enjoy playing with those? S: nods (goes and sits down) Tenor: Scale 2 • responds in socially appropriate ways • chooses common formulaic expressions • pronounces most words comprehensibly

  38. Tenor: Scale 3 • expresses statements in basic ways

  39. Tenor: Scale 4 • uses a narrow range of evaluative language

  40. Teacher: You can say good morning to everybody. Johnny: Good morning everyone. Everyone: Good morning Johnny. Johnny: My name is Johnny and I am 10 years old… and… Sunday I woke up I had breakfast…I had breakfast.. then I…I play…with my brother… cricket and my friend… next I…had my dinner. I ate fries… and… meat… round… like a thing. Teacher: What colour is it? Johnny: It’s green. Teacher: Green peas. Is it a vegetable? Yes? Green peas, vegetables? Johnny: Yes. After that I went to bed. Tenor: Scale 5 • Chooses formulaic polite expressions appropriately • Demonstrates a good awareness of intonation patterns of basic spoken statements, questions

  41. Tenor: Scale 5 • auxilliaries • a small range of evaluative language to express feelings and attitudes

  42. Tenor: Scale 5 • a range of evaluative language • uses a small range of language elements expressing modality

  43. Tenor: Scale 6 • uses a range of language elements to express feelings and attitudes

  44. Tenor: Scale 7 • chooses some elementary expressions of modality • evaluative vocabulary to express feelings and attitudes • strictly limited range of colloquial and idiomatic language

  45. Tenor: Scale 9 • uses a range of simple forms of language expressing modality with a greater degree of accuracy in more formal contexts

  46. Task: • Look at your text and using the criteria from the previous slides or the criteria in the Scales, determine the Scale for Tenor. • Decide on some teaching priorities for this student, to develop Tenor.

  47. Text in Context Language Sociocultural Context Genre • the range of genres • specific purposes • structure and cohesion • language choices - • structure texts • cohesive Situational Context Field • the ‘what’, or content • its informational elements • range from everyday to technical vocabulary • word groups and phrases • the verbs • participants • circumstances Tenor • the ‘who’ • interpersonal elements • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude • the language choices • who questions or commands • how degrees of certainty expressed. • textual element • spoken to written • multimodal Mode • the ‘how’ • its textual elements • range of spoken, written and multimodal texts • the language choices -organise texts • focus foregrounding

  48. Text in Context Language Sociocultural Context Genre • the range of genres • specific purposes • structure and cohesion • language choices - • structure texts • cohesive Situational Context Field • the ‘what’, or content • its informational elements • range from everyday to technical vocabulary • word groups and phrases • the verbs • participants • circumstances Tenor • the ‘who’ • interpersonal elements • deal with formality, familiarity and attitude • the language choices • who questions or commands • how degrees of certainty expressed. Mode • textual element • deals with the range of spoken, written and multimodal texts • foregrounding • voice and tense • print conventions • foregrounding • voice and tense • print conventions

  49. Mode: Scale 1 • handwriting: legible letters • representing sounds: some attempt

  50. Mode: Scale 3 • repetitive sentence beginnings: I • limited control of primary tenses: simple present used instead of simple past • print conventions: spells with some accuracy