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Little Richard. Little Richard. The purest prototype of hard, mainstream rock was Little Richard Early years Specialty Records. Tutti Frutti. Chorus twelve-bar blues Instrumentation and performers Performance style Religion. Chuck Berry. Chuck Berry. Early years

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little richard1

Little Richard

The purest prototype of hard, mainstream rock was Little Richard

Early years

Specialty Records

tutti frutti

Tutti Frutti

Chorus twelve-bar blues

Instrumentation and performers

Performance style


chuck berry1

Chuck Berry

Early years

Muddy Waters and Chess Records

Musical hits



Created beat of rock and roll from two blues sources


Boogie woogie

Little Richards

Listen for boogie woogie rhythm in electric guitar (normally in pianist)



“Ida Red”

heavy back beat; prominent guitar “voice”; honky-tonk transformed

refrain-frame form

one chorus conventional blues

verses are interpolated

that ll be the day

That’ll be the Day

Chuck Berry’s “Maybellene”

Blues chords

Unusual sequence

not fade away

Not Fade Away

Not dance music

3 regular rhythms

unconventional drumming

clave rhythm

not fade away1

Not Fade Away

accents play against the beat

backup vocalists

strong accent

No bass or rhythm guitar

not fade away2

Not Fade Away

No one marks time

Rhythmic bearing

Rock and roll can be more than dance music

mystery train

Mystery Train



Imitation of a locomotive

Perform twice as fast, backbeat

Light instrumentation


Heartbreak Hotel

  • First RCA session
  • Bob Ferris constructed an echo chamber
  • Label feared it was a terrible mistake
  • Elvis’ first #1 hit

Heartbreak Hotel

  • Elvis produced and directed almost all his own music
  • Never really interested in trying to improve his playing skills
  • Unfailing ear
revolver eleanor rigby1
Revolver Eleanor Rigby
  • Unprecedented topic
  • Broke sharply with pop song conventions
  • Detached delivery
  • Time passes, without apparent purpose
revolver eleanor rigby2
Revolver Eleanor Rigby
  • Musical setting as bleak as the words
  • String octet (four violins, two violas, two cellos)
  • String sound is sparse
revolver eleanor rigby3
Revolver Eleanor Rigby
  • Chord progressions emulate rock accompaniment
  • Static melody and harmony
  • Repetitive rhythm of accompaniment
revolver eleanor rigby4
Revolver Eleanor Rigby
  • Pop becoming Art?
  • Classical-style string accompaniment
  • Comparable to Schubert’s art songs
sympathy for the devil
Sympathy for the Devil
  • Basic harmonic vocabulary
  • Chorus consists six phrases
  • Repetitions
  • Five-bar phrase
sympathy for the devil1
Sympathy for the Devil
  • Intro on drums (add maracas on bar 4) 10 bars
  • Lead vocal and full accompaniment enter
  • Chorus 1 (aaaa) 17 bars + (bb) 8 bars (fourth statement of a is 5 bars long)
  • Chorus 2 (aaaa) 17 bars + (bb) 8 bars
sympathy for the devil2
Sympathy for the Devil
  • Chorus 3 (aaaa) 17 bars + (bb) 8 bars (add background vocals)
  • Chorus 4 (aaaa) 17 bars + (bb) 8 bars
  • (add guitar lead in a-section; lead vocal re-enters in b-section)
  • Chorus 5 (aaaa) 17 bars + (bb) 8 bars
sympathy for the devil3
Sympathy for the Devil
  • Closing Section (aa) 8 bars
    • Vocal interjections over guitar lead (with piano)
  • Repeat and fade-out
sympathy for the devil4
Sympathy for the Devil
  • Samba beat
  • Timbral changes
  • Visceral
  • Stone’s simplicity and repetiveness
dyaln s significance
Dyaln’s Significance


  • Symbolism, internal ironies, sarcasm, thought-provoking messages, dry wit, surrealism, and graceful flow
ball and chain
Ball and Chain
  • Stutters, reiterations
  • Melismas, interpolations
  • Hommange to Smith?
  • Hisses “sitting”
  • Necessary embellishments
ball and chain1
Ball and Chain
  • Joplin’s voice not as rich as Smith’s
  • Tempo of the song slower
  • Musical space must be filled
  • Progressively less restrained
help i m a rock
Help I’m a Rock

A "It can't happen here"—non-metric, non-tonal vocal expanding this lyric

B "Who could imagine"—(1) "freak out in Kansas" (followed by improvisation on "Kansas")

(2) "freak out in Minnesota" (followed by improvisation on "Minnesota")

C: Instrumental section—piano and drums in a fragmented, non-tonal, pointillistic style

help i m a rock1
Help I’m a Rock

B: "Who could imagine"—"freak out in

Washington, D.C." (followed by

improvisation on "D.C.")

A: "It can't happen here"—enters underneath previous section, but begins to dominate

D: "I remember"—metric; three phrases

help i m a rock2
Help I’m a Rock

A: "It couldn't happen here"—brief return

E: Suzy Creamcheese—dialogue with semi-fictional Zappa character

A: "It can't happen here"—brief return; filtered voices

help i m a rock3
Help I’m a Rock
  • Combines two common classical forms: the arch form and the rondo.




  • Improvisation
  • Experimentation with textures