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Biosecurity . Biosecurity Principles. Adapted from the FAD PReP /NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity (2013). Importance of Biosecurity. Reduce risk of disease spread During movement of personnel, equipment, and materials During routine animal care During animal emergency response activities

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biosecurity

Biosecurity

Biosecurity Principles

Adapted from the FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity (2013)

importance of biosecurity
Importance of Biosecurity

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Reduce risk of disease spread
    • During movement of personnel, equipment, and materials
    • During routine animal care
    • During animal emergency response activities
    • Protect responders’ health if agent is zoonotic
biosecurity awareness
Biosecurity Awareness

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Focus on biosecurity when completing tasks
    • All personnel
    • During response
    • During normal activities
  • Develop a Biosecurity Plan
  • Establish a decontamination area
  • Think ahead, plan, and be patient
routes of disease transmission
Routes of Disease Transmission

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

aerosol transmission
Aerosol Transmission

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Inhalation of droplets containing pathogens
    • Animals in close proximity
    • Typically respiratory, some diarrheal diseases
    • Examples:
      • FMD
      • END
      • Influenza
      • Q Fever
oral transmission
Oral Transmission

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Ingestion of pathogenic agents via feces, urine, saliva, other secretions
    • Contaminated feed, water or other items in animal’s environment.
    • Examples:
      • END
      • FMD
      • Hendra
      • Nipah
      • Q Fever
direct contact
Direct Contact

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Physical contact between susceptible and infected animal/environment.
    • Via skin, mucus membranes, wound
    • Rubbing, biting, licking
    • Fomites
    • Examples: African Swine Fever, FMD, Q Fever, Contagious Equine Metritis
fomite transmission
Fomite Transmission

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Pathogen transfer by inanimate objects
    • Direct contact or oral transmission
    • Boots, clothing, tools, vehicles, syringes,

and other equipment

    • Examples: ASF, CSF, FMD, Influenza
vector transmission
Vector Transmission

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Arthropods transfer pathogens from infected animal to healthy animal
    • Mechanical and biological vectors
    • Fleas, ticks, mosquitoes
    • Examples: Bluetongue, EIA, West Nile Virus
zoonotic transmission
Zoonotic Transmission

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

Pathogens spread between animals and humans

Any route

Occupational and public health concerns

Examples: Brucellosis, END, Influenza, Q Fever, Hendra, Nipah, Tuberculosis

clothing and ppe for biosecurity
Clothing and PPE for Biosecurity

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

importance
Importance

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Pathogenic agents can be transferred via contaminated clothing
  • Ask about biosecurity practices before entering animal areas
  • Follow premises biosecurity protocols
    • Shower-in; shower out
outerwear
Outerwear

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Clean outerwear:
    • Disposable or reusable coveralls,lab coat, smock, etc.
    • Remove when leaving premises
  • Wear gloves, wash hands after removing
outerwear1
Outerwear

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Footwear:
    • Rubber boots, disposable plastic boots or other easily cleanable footwear
  • Boots:
    • Remove all organic matter
    • Thoroughly disinfect with water and approved disinfectant
disposable outerwear
Disposable Outerwear

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Dispose of on-site, if possible
  • Coveralls, gloves, boot covers(and disposable equipment)
  • If not disposed on-site, place in garbage bag, seal, double bag, and dispose of later
reusable outerwear
Reusable Outerwear

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • May be reused after cleaning and disinfection
    • Washable coveralls
    • Rubber boots
  • May need to leave at premises
  • May have protocol for transporting contaminated items
slide17
PPE

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) purposes:
    • Protect responder from hazards
    • Prevent spread of hazards between animals and locations
  • PPE briefing:
    • To don, doff, clean, and disinfect PPE
    • Avoid cross-contamination
biosecurity and other fomites
Biosecurity and other Fomites

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

vehicles
Vehicles

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

Park vehicles away from animal areas and runoff.

Avoid driving in manure or wastewater

Clean vehicles between visits to production facilities

Follow cleaning and disinfection protocols

vehicles1
Vehicles

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Designate “clean” and “dirty” areas in vehicle
    • Properly contain any contaminated clothing,equipment or supplies
    • Follow protocols for later disposal or decontamination
c d cleaning disinfection
C&D– Cleaning/Disinfection

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Two-step process:
    • Cleaning
    • Disinfection
  • Items to clean and disinfect include:
    • Vehicles
    • Tools and equipment
    • Reusable clothing, reusable PPE
    • Hands
c d vehicles
C&D Vehicles

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Clean between visits to production facilities, include tires and floor mats
  • Use commercial car washes with wheel-well washing
    • May need a tire spray
c d equipment and hands
C&D Equipment and Hands

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • Equipment:
    • Select easily cleanable equipment
    • Use disposable equipment when possible
    • Clean and disinfect before leaving premises, if at all possible
  • Hands:
    • Wash with antibacterial soap
    • Wash hands even if gloves are worn
prevent contamination
Prevent Contamination

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

Avoid walking through contaminated areas

Avoid direct contact with contaminated items

Protect injured skin

Stay upwind of airborne contaminants

Do not carry personal items into contaminated areas

prevent contamination1
Prevent Contamination

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • For equipment:
    • Limit time vehicles and equipment are in contaminated area
  • When taking samples:
    • Set contaminated samples and tools in clean bag before placing on clean surface
    • Bag sample containers before removing from site
for more information
For More Information

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

  • FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines & SOP: Biosecurity (2013)
    • http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/
  • Biosecurity web-based training module
    • http://naherc.sws.iastate.edu/
guidelines content
Guidelines Content

FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Biosecurity - Principles

Author (CFSPH)

Cheryl L. Eia, JD, DVM, MPH

Reviewers (USDA)

Diego Martin Fridmann, DVM, PhD

Lori P. Miller, PE

acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

Development of this presentation was by the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University through funding from the USDA APHIS Veterinary Services

PPT Authors: Dawn Bailey, BS; Kerry Leedom Larson, DVM, MPH, PhD, DACVPM;Cheryl L. Eia, JD, DVM, MPH; Patricia Futoma, Veterinary Student

Reviewers: Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Janice Mogan, DVM