Sound Patterns. Alliteration : succession of same sound or same consonant group Wild Wild West, Sea Shells Sell, Back Bench Boys Consonance : (pause in alliteration; intervening vowel) Go bb ets of Blu bb er; Son of a Gun Assonance (congruence or close repetition of vowel sounds)
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Sound Patterns Alliteration: succession of same sound or same consonant group Wild Wild West, Sea Shells Sell, Back Bench Boys Consonance: (pause in alliteration; intervening vowel) Gobbets of Blubber; Son of a Gun Assonance (congruence or close repetition of vowel sounds) Blind eyes, hind sight
Metre and metrical pattern - The four most important metres in English Literature: iambaá [To bè], [or nòt] [to bè], [that ìs] [the quèstion] (Shakespeare, "Hamlet") trochee áaTìger! tìger! bùrningbrìght (William Blake, "The Tiger") dactyl áaaJùst for a hàndful of sìlver he lèft us (Robert Browning, "The Lost Leader") anapestaaá The Ass`yrian came dòwn like a wòlf on the fòld(Lord Byron, "The Deconstruction of Sennacherib")
Feet and number of feet • monometer one foot • dimeter two feet • trimeter three feet • tetrameter four feet Behóld/ the híp/popó/tamús! (O. Nash) • pentameter five feet My mís/tress’ éyes/ are nó/thing líke/ the sún(Shakespeare) • hexameter six feet (or alexandrine) • heptameter seven feet • octameter eight feet = a line containing five iambic feet would be described as iambic pentameter
Meter Enjambment – continued syntax. Policemen look suspicious to normal Murders. Caesura (se-su-raorse-zu-ra)/Alexandrine (Enjambment after threestressesorsixthsyallble) Whe (1) 'n in (2) En (3) glish (4) I (5) speak (6) (caesura)dic (1) tio (2) na (3) ry (4) I (5) keep.(6).
Structureof a Poem • Stanzas – Rhyming Pairs • Couplets Heroic Couplet (Iambic Pentameter) And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. Tracet, Quartian, Seset, Octave
Wordsworth: “Composed upon Westminster Bridge”, Sep. 3, 1802 Earth hath not anything to show more fair: (a) Dull would he be of soul who could pass by (b)A sight so touching in its majesty: (b)This City now doth, like a garment, wear (a)The beauty of the morning; silent, bare, (a)Ships, towers, domes, theatres and temples lie (b)Open unto the fields, and to the sky; (b)All bright and glittering in the smokeless air. (a)Never did sun more beautifully steep (c)In his first splendor, valley, rock, or hill; (d)Ne'er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep! (c)The river glideth at his own sweet will: (d)Dear God! The very houses seem asleep; (c)And all that mighty heart is lying still! (d)
Shakespeare: Sonnet No. 130 My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; (a)Coral is far more red than her lips' red; (b) If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; (a)If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. (b) I have seen roses damask'd, red and white, (c) But no such roses see I in her cheeks; (d)And in some perfumes is there more delight (c) Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. (d)I love to hear her speak, yet well I know (e)That music hath a far more pleasing sound; (f) I grant I never saw a goddess go; (e) My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground: (f)And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare (g)As any she belied with false compare. (g)
Rhymes and Sound Patterns Position in Line End-Rhyme (stressed final vowels) bright night Internal Rhyme (two or more words) Please mutter, no chatter
Rhyming By Number of Syllables Masculine/Monosyllabic Vowels in the stressed final syllable eye hippopotami Feminine/Disyllabic pity dirty
Rhyming Rich Rhyme – homophonic (same sound different meaning) Knight night Identical Rhyme – repeating the same word) rose-tree rose-tree
Other Rhyming • Half Rhyme • End assonance (simil. between vowel sounds) crowd bough 2) End of two lines (congruence between consonants) Port Chart
Other RhymingSchemes 3) Para Rhyme (initial and ending consonants same but vowels different) Mystery Mastery 4) Eye Sight dies enmities
Other Rhyming Mosaic (division into more than one word) What is it Pay us a visit Broken Rhyme (same as above but enjambed) Just singing No ling- ering.
RhymeSchems “Childhood’s Hour” by Edgar Allan Poe Couplet From childhood’s hour I have not been a As others were; I have not seen a As others saw; I could not bring b My passions from a common spring. b From the same source I have not taken c My sorrow; I could not awaken c My heart to joy at the same tone; d
Alternative There once was a big brown cataThat liked to eat a lot of mice.bHe got all round and fat aBecause they tasted so nice.b
EmbracingRhyme “The Trees” by Philip Larkin The trees are coming into leaf aLike something almost being said. bThe recent buds relax and spread, bTheir greenness is a kind of grief. a Is it that they are born again cAnd we grow old? No, they die too. dTheir yearly trick of looking new dIs written down in rings of grain. c
Chain “Untitled” by John Byrom My spirit longeth for thee a Within my troubled breast, b Although I be unworthy a Of so divine a guest. b Unworthy though I be c Yet has my heart no rest, b Unless it comes from thee c In vain I look around, d In all that I can see, c
Tail “Thanksgiving” by Cecil Hackman Take heed do not forget heritage. a Being thankful should not fall on rage. a Celebrate Thanksgiving b We have dropped this sacred holiday. c Commercialism, no way to pray, c Fiscal unforgiving, b