10,000 - 300 BCE - Prehistoric period of tribal/clan organization -Stone Age hunters and gatherers who make jomon (rope-patterned) pottery inhabit Japan 660 BCE - Mythological Jimmu (Divine Warrior), descendant of sun goddess Amaterasu Omikami, founds first Japanese empire 300 BCE – 300CE – Yayoi Perido - Rice cultivation, metalworking, and the potter's wheel are introduced from China and Korea 100-300 CE - Local clans form small political units Japanese Civilization
The most significant influences that arrived from Korea and China in Japan were in the realm of religion Most important of all was the arrival of Buddhism However the Japanese did have an indigenous religion, called Shinto Shinto started out as a nature worship religion and evolved into a state religion of patriotic appreciation to the Japanese land itself Shintoism also would include animism and ancestor worship Shinto rituals could be performed in homes as well as in temples – allowing it to become a more personal religion To an extent, the development of Shintoism was a reaction against foreign influence, especially that of China. Japanese Religion - Shintoism
In the 7th-8th centuries, the Japanese wrote down their native myths and legends in a collection called Kojiki(Chronicles of Ancient Events) In it are the creation myths and foundation of the Shinto religion Shinto gods are called kami Izanagiand Izanamiwere the first gods from whom all other gods descended The most important of whom is Ameterasu, the sun goddess, who is considered the ancestor of all Japanese emperors Japanese Religion - Shintoism
Japanese Art • Jomon Earthenware Pot • 2000 BCE • Japan • Pottery • Use of geometric patterns to create various impressions • Called Jomon (rope) because the patterns are rope-like in appearance
Japanese Art • Haniwa Figures • 5th – 4th centuries BCE • Japan • Sculpture • These figures were placed on the tops of graves • Each one representing the deceased below or his/her interests
Japanese Art • Horyu-ji Kondo • 670 CE • Nara, Japan • Architecture • Oldest wooden temple in Japan • Japanese favored lateral over linear movement and building are lined up left to right rather than one in front of the other
Phoenix Hall • 1053 C.E. • Byodoin, Uji, Japan • Architecture • The Phoenix is the mythical bird that supposedly protects the Buddha • Was originally a private villa converted into a temple during Heian Period
Japanese Art • Shaka Triad • 623 CE • Nara, Japan • Artist: Tori Busshi • Asuka Period • The Buddha is flanked by 2 bodhisattvas sitting on a throne • Buddha’s name in Japan is Shakyamuni
Japanese Art • Tale of the Genji –Azumaya Chapter • 12th century CE • Nagoya, Japan • Illuminated manuscript • Heian Hand scroll • Emphasis on placement of figures, costumes and design
Japanese Art • Shokintei • 1660s • Kyoto, Japan • Architecture • In the Katsura Palace Gardens • Named after the sound of the wind in the pines that surround it • This is a typical Japanese tea ceremony pavilion • Nature is a key part of Japanese aesthetics
Japanese Art • Winter Landscape • 1470s • Tokyo, Japan • Painting • Artist: Sesshu • Ashikaga Period • Harshness of pictorial style is characteristic of Sesshu’s work • Suggests the cold bitter mood of winter
Japanese Art • Daruma Meditating • 1760 • Japan • Painting • Artist: Hakuin Ekaku • Attempt to capture the intensity of meditation
Japanese Art • Painting the Lips • 1794 – 1795 CE • Tokyo, Japan • Painting/Relief • Artist: Utamaro Kitagawa • A wood block print meant for mass production • Since she has eyebrows she is an unmarried woman – most likely a courtesan
Japanese Art • The Great Wave off Kanagawa • 1831 • Tokyo, Japan • Painting/Relief • Artist: Hokusai Katsushika • Also a wood block print for reproduction • Depicts the power of nature, Mount Fuji can be seen in the distance – the symbol of Japan’s stability
Japanese Art • Temple of the Golden Pavilion • 1397 • Kyoto, Japan • Architecture • Muromachi Period • Built as a retreat for the shogun Yoshimitsu and converted into a temple after his retirement • Named because parts of temple are covered with gold leaf
Japanese Art • Himeji Castle • 1581 – 1609 • Hyogo, Japan • Architecture • Living spaces and fortifications are combined into one space • Made of strong masonry made necessary by the introduction of firearms and cannons
Japanese Art • Garden of the Daisen-in Monastery • 16th century • Kyoto, Japan • Architecture • Artist: Kagaku Soku • Used as a place of meditation and assembly of Zen priests • Vertical rocks represent cliffs, horizontal stones represent embankments and bridges and trees in the back represent mountains
Kinship Bureaucracy Ie (household) system Group decision making Samurai spirit (loyalty) Group Orientation
Arts Political and economic ambition Private property Individual rights Samurai spirit (self-discipline) Individual Expression
Prehistoric Jomon and Yayoi cultures Establishment of Uji (clan/family) based social and political organization Yamato establishes first control over large area Contact with Korea and China The establishment of Japanese kinship organization
The breakdown of imperial administration and land control The rise of the warrior bands The Kamakura Shogunate (1192) The Ashikaga Shogunate (1368) The Warring States (1467-1573) The rise of the Samurai
Samurai and Nobility (Shi) Farmers (No) Craftsmen (Ko) Merchants (Sho) (Floating world (Ukiyo) people and Eta) Social Stratification
Yamato Period: 300-710 Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture: • Confucianism. • Language (kanji characters). • Buddhist sects. • Chinese art & architecture. • Government structure. “Great Kings” era
Prince Shotoku: 573-621 • Adopted Chinese culture and Confucianism. • Buddhist sects allowed to develop. • Created a new government structure: • 17 Article Constitution in 604.
Heian Period: 794-1156 Characteristics: • Growth of large landed estates. • Arts & literature of China flourished. • Elaborate court life [highly refined] • ETIQUETTE. • Personal diaries • The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon [10c] • Great novel • The Tale of Genjiby Lady Murasaki Shikibu[1000 pgs.+] • Moving away from Chinese models in religion, the arts, and government.
Heian Period:Cultural Borrowing • Chinese writing. • Chinese artistic styles. • Buddhism [in the form of ZEN]. • BUT, not the Chinese civil service system!
Lady Murasaki Shikibu She contributed much to the Japanese script known as kana, while men wrote with Chinese characters, kanji.
Minamoto Yoritomo Founded the Kamakura Shogunate: 1185-1333
The emperor reigned, but did not always rule! Feudal Society
Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service.Japan: Shogun Land - Shoen Loyalty Land - Shoen Daimyo Daimyo Loyalty Samurai Samurai Samurai Food Protection Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant
Code of Bushido • Fidelity • Politeness • Virility • Simplicity
Seppuku: Ritual Suicide It is honorable to die in this way. Kaishaku – his “seconds”