Emily Dickinson Walt Whitman • 1830-1886 • Reclusive , minimal social contact • Unconventional use of punctuation, meter, and slant rhyme • Explored the different aspects of human consciousness. • 1819-1892 • Despite initial criticism, became widely admired. • Unconventional rhyme and meter • Celebrated the common man, democracy, equality and spiritual unity.
Sound devices(since poetry is meant to be HEARD) • Alliteration: The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. (Pied piper) • Meter: rhythmical pattern (# of beats) • Rhythm: the pattern of beats in spoken or written language • Rhyme: the repetition of sounds at the ends of words • End rhyme: rhyming words repeated at the ends of lines • Internal rhyme: rhyming words fall within a line • Slant rhyme: rhyming sounds which are similar, but not exact (glove-prove vs. glove-above) • Rhyme scheme: represent the rhyme alphabetically (abba/abba)
More Sound Devices… • Onomatopoeia: the use of words that imitate sounds (“hiss”, “murmur”, “rustle”) • Assonance: repetition of vowel sounds (“given distance”) • Consonance: repetition of consonant sounds at the ends of words (pluck and dark) • Repetition: the repeating of words, phrases, or lines. • Catalog: a list of things (people, names, jobs, etc.) • Free verse: poetry that has irregular meter and line length • Parallel Syntax: the repetition of grammatical structure.
Figurative Language • Simile: A comparison between two things using “like” or “as”. • Metaphor: A direct comparison between two things that are identified. • Personification: a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics. • Hyperbole: Gross exaggeration (“If Tim doesn’t ask me to the prom, I will die.”) • Imagery: the use of descriptive language used to create mental images for the reader.