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Leadership strategies at each stage of group development. HLTH 365 Dr. Patricia L. McDiarmid. Reviewing the FIVE developmental group STAGES.

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reviewing the five developmental group stages
Reviewing the FIVE developmental group STAGES
  • Numerous researchers have determined that FIVE DISTICT sequential stages exist with respect to groups forming into cohesive and functional groups (Cain, 2003; Kerr and Gass, 1987; Jensen, 1979; and Tickman & Jensen, 1977).Bruce Tuckman (1965) developed a 4-stage model of group development.  He labeled the stages, DrSuess-style:
  • The FIVE STAGE MODEL that has been most adapted:
          • FORMING
          • STORMING
          • NORMING
          • PERFORMING
          • ADJORNING (Added this fifth stage ten years later)
stage one forming getting to know you
STAGE ONE: FORMING“Getting to Know You…”
  • Group comes together and begins to sort out tasks and relationships
  • Defines the problem
  • Agrees on goals and formulates strategies for tackling the tasks
  • Individuals take on certain roles
  • Determines the challenges and identifies information needed
  • Develops trust and communication
stage two storming high winds predicted
STAGE TWO: STORMING“High Winds Predicted”
  • Concerns arise relative to the ways members relate to one and another as they work together
    • Realize that the task is more difficult than they imagined
    • Have fluctuations in attitude about chances of success
    • May be resistant to the task
    • Have poor collaboration
stage three norming charting a course
STAGE THREE: NORMING“Charting a Course”
  • Group begins to overcome its concerns establishing ground rules for tasks and relationships
  • During this stage members accept:
          • Their team
          • Team rules and procedures
          • Their roles in the team
          • The individuality of fellow members
  • Team members realize that they are not going to crash-and-burn and start helping each other
stage four performing the action stage
  • Group works efficiently as a team accomplishing a high level of output in both tasks and relationships
    • Gained insight into personal and team processes
    • A better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses
    • Gained the ability to prevent or work through group conflict and resolve differences
    • Developed a close attachment to the team
stage five adjourning break up of the group
STAGE FIVE: ADJOURNING “Break-up of the Group”
  • Group closes down or breaks up and moves on to other tasks and relationships perhaps within a new group
  • The team has achieved its purpose and is ready to move on to new tasks and initiatives.
  • Team members feel satisfied about what they have achieved.


FORMING: encompasses the discomforts, concerns, feelings, and doubts members experience in a new group

STORMING: occurs when participant begin to meet the needs of the group, questions authority, and feel more comfortable about themselves and their relationships

NORMING: involves members addressing standards of behavior through which a greater sense of order prevails

PERFORMING: finds the group concentrating on the tasks at hand with mutual support and interaction among grou members

ADJOURNING: provides closure of the task including the imminent end of relationships

cog s ladder another model for effective groups
Cog’s Ladder: Another Model FOR effective groups
  • The politeness stage—members are getting acquainted with each other, sharing only some information and being careful in their interactions.
  • The “why are we here” stage—the group begins to clarify purpose, share values, and form cliques or subgroups.
  • The bid for power stage—there is competition among some members for control of the group.
  • Teconstructive stage—collaboration and consensus building occurs among members, as well as shared leadership, and a group identity develops.
  • The “esprit” stage—group interaction reflects creativity, trust, caring, openness, respect, and acceptance.
two dimensions
  • work undertaken by the group called PRODUCTS
  • group members or PROCESSES
actions of effective leaders
  • Know the FIVE STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT and the various characteristics associated with each stage
  • Be able to identify which stage of development their group is in and employ correct leadership style as well as leadership strategy to bring about growth and change
  • Differentiate how groups differ and vary in their stages of development and identify strategies that will develop ALL members of the group
  • Identify factors that impact group dynamics as well as adjust for these factors within a particular group’s development
leaders need to remember
Leaders Need to remember…
  • Different teams progress through the different stages at different rates. This process can be impacted when
  • Different team members have varying rates of progress.
  • It is possible for a team to regress back to an earlier stage.
  • It is possible for a team to be in different stages with respect to different aspects of its mission.
  • Each stage must be passed through before true progress can be made.
leadership coaching first stage
Leadership Coaching: First Stage
  • Characteristics of the first stage for leadership coaching:
        • Participants introduce themselves
        • Periods of silence and awkwardness
        • Trust and mistrust are central issues
        • Members decide how safe the group is
        • Members decide how much they will disclose
        • Few people take risks, they tentatively explore
        • Experienced members may try to lead the group
        • Members check whether they are included or excluded
common concerns of group members
Common concerns of group members:
  • Fear of appearing stupid
  • Not knowing what is expected
  • Concern about the judgment of others
  • Concerns about not fitting into the group
  • Anxiety whether they will be accepted or rejected
  • Concern whether they can communicate feelings and thoughts
leader attitude behavior
Leaderattitude &behavior
  • Respect
  • Empathy
  • Caring confrontation
  • Genuineness and self-disclosure
  • Careful attention & genuine listening
leadership skills during the initial stage
Leadership skills during the initial stage
  • How to best end sessions
  • How to share responsibility with members
  • How to enable members to use group process
  • How to open groups and help members gain focus
  • Rounds: How members can check in and check out

A safe environment helps minimize initial discomfort and motivates group members to participate. Help newcomers enjoy pleasant experiences of their first group meetings. Newcomers who have unpleasant experiences may not return.

leadership coaching transition stage
Leadership Coaching: Transition Stage
  • Characteristics of transition:
  • Feelings of anxiety, avoidance, and defenses
  • Conflict between wanting to be safe and be involved
  • Members test leader and other members to check safety
  • Observing the leader to determine if he or she is trustworthy
  • Learning how to express themselves so that others will listen
dealing with resistance
Dealing with resistance
  • Avoid labeling all hesitations as objections
  • Some hesitations indicate processing of new information
  • Respect resistance - resistance usually serves a function
  • Describe behavior of members - avoid hasty interpretations
  • Approach resistance with interest, understanding, and compassion
  • Invite members to explore the meaning of what appears to be resistance
transition stage common fears
Transition Stage Common fears
  • Fear of emptiness
  • Fear of lose control
  • Fear of being judged
  • Fear of self-disclosure
  • Fear of being too emotional
  • Fear of making a fool of oneself
  • Fear of taking too much group time
leader function during transition stage
Leader function during transition stage
  • Coach members to recognize and resolve conflicts
  • Provide a model for members by dealing directly with challenges
  • Coach members to recognize their own objections and defensiveness
  • Coach members to respect resistance and to work constructively with it
  • Coach members to express reactions that pertain to here and now in the session
leadership coaching working stage
Leadership Coaching: Working Stage
  • There are no arbitrary divisions between group stages
  • Not all groups reach a working stage
  • Not all members function at the same level
  • Group development ebbs and flows- does not stay static
  • Work can occur at every stage - not just the working stage
group norms and behavior during the working stage
Group norms and behavior during the working stage
  • Use a variety of coaching tools
  • Develop a healing capacity within the group
  • Both support and challenge to take risk in group
  • Members interact with each other in more direct way
  • Increase group cohesion to foster action-oriented behaviors
characteristics of productive groups
Characteristics of productive groups
  • Trust are safety are increased
  • There is a focus on the here and now
  • Goals of members are clear and specific
  • Conflict in the group is recognized and explored
  • Members are willing to make themselves known
  • Cohesion is high-a sense of emotional bonding in the group
characteristics of nonworking groups
Characteristics of nonworking groups
  • Conflicts are ignored or avoided
  • Communicational is unclear and indirect
  • Members may feel distant from one another
  • Participants hold back, disclosure is minimal
  • Participants focus more on others than themselves
  • Distrust creates undercurrents of unexpressed feelings
leadership coaching termination stage
Leadership Coaching: Termination Stage
  • Tasks for final stages of groups:
  • Unfinished business
  • Dealing with separation
  • Review group experience
  • Practice for behavior change
  • Giving and receiving feedback
  • Ways of carrying learning further
  • The use of contract and homework
leadership when ending a group
Leadership when ending a group
  • Coach members to deal with any feelings about termination
  • Reinforce changes that members have made during the group
  • Coach members to develop specific contracts and homework
  • Provide opportunities for members to give constructive feedback
  • Reemphasize the importance of confidentiality after group is over
leadership after a group terminates
leadership after a group terminates
  • Offer private consultations with individual group members
  • Giving and receive feedback during the ending stage
  • Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the group
  • Provide for follow-up group session or individual coaching
  • Identify referral sources for members who want further assistance
leadership styles alignment with stages
Leadership styles & alignment with stages
  • Directing is for the Orientation/Forming stage
  • Coaching is for the Dissatisfaction/Storming stage
  • Supporting is for the Resolution/Norming stage
  • Delegating is for the Performance/Performing stage