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Learning Objects for Web-Based and Web-Enhanced Instruction. Mike Cipriani. First, Some Background…. What’s the difference between web-based and web-enhanced instruction?.

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first some background
First, Some Background…

What’s the difference between web-based and web-enhanced instruction?

Web-based instruction involves educational activities that take place exclusively via computerized course delivery, generally through the internet.

Web-enhanced instruction is when classroom activities use computers, again generally the internet, to augment the learning process.

three important definitions related to web based web enhanced instruction
Three Important Definitions related to Web-Based & Web-Enhanced Instruction
  • Information = material communicated through a flow of messages to a learner
  • Instruction = information that is deliberately sequenced to create a learning opportunity
  • Learning = the cognitive processing of information by the learner
Web sites use Information and Instruction to stimulate learning

Web sites deliver information, instruction and learning by using learning objects

what is a learning object
What is a Learning Object?

The Learning Technology Standards Committee says:

"[A]ny entity, digital or non-digital, that may be used for learning, education or training”

For our purposes, this definition is too…


We need something more specific….

for this context what is a learning object
For This Context, What is a Learning Object?

We will use Wiley’s definition:

“Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning”

Key Words in Wiley’s Definition:

Digital = available in electronic form; readable and manipulable by computer.

Reused = use again after processing

Thus, we are narrowing our working definition of Learning Objects to those used in web-based & web-enhanced instruction.

five types of learning objects
Five Types of Learning Objects
  • Fundamental
  • Combined-Closed
  • Combined-Open
  • Generative-Presentation
  • Generative-Instructional
  • An individual digital resource, usually a visual aid that conveys information
  • Example: A diagram of the internal parts of a computer


combined closed
  • A small number of digital resources combined with a single purpose and whose individual elements are not reusable from the object itself
  • Example: A video explaining how to install an IDE internal hard drive


combined open
  • A large number of digital resources combined for a purpose whose elements are reusable as separate learning objects
  • Example: An informational web page


generative presentation
  • A combination of learning objects in a specific structure that generates a presentation for instruction or reference
  • Example: A page of links to tutorials that together teach the Java programming language


generative instructional
  • A combination of learning objects in a specific structure that generates an abstract instructional strategy and means to assess it
  • Example: A tutorial with interactive practice and quizzes for learning HTML


references additional info
References & Additional Info.
  • http://opencontent.org/wiki/index.php?title=Learning_Object_Metaphors
  • http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2005/Santally.htm
  • http://www.minddrops.com/Talks/innovations2002boston.htm
  • http://opencontent.org/docs/lo_do.pdf
  • http://www.reusability.org/read/#1
  • http://technologysource.org/article/preparing_teachers_to_use_learning_objects/
  • http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_what.html
  • Grabowski, B. and Small, R. (1997). "Information, Instruction and Learning: A Hypermedia Perspective". Performance Improvement Quarterly, 10(1), pp.156-166