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AGING THEORIES. By : Megah Andriany. DAHULU. Ilmuwan telah membuat teori penuaan (Aristoteles, Hipocrates) Penurunan suhu tbh & cairan (umum). SEKARANG. Penelitian dan Penemuan Semakin : Jelas Kompleks Variatif. “Menjadi tua itu pasti, menjadi dewasa itu pilihan”.

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aging theories

AGING THEORIES

By : Megah Andriany

dahulu
DAHULU
  • Ilmuwan telah membuat teori penuaan (Aristoteles, Hipocrates)

Penurunan suhu tbh & cairan (umum)

sekarang
SEKARANG

Penelitian dan Penemuan

Semakin :

  • Jelas
  • Kompleks
  • Variatif
3 perspektif penuaan
3 PERSPEKTIF PENUAAN
  • Usia biologis

 kapasitas fungsi sistem organ

  • Usia psikologis

 kapasitas perilaku adaptasi

  • Usia sosial

 perubahan peran & perilaku sesuai usia manusia

Teori saling melengkapi

peran teori dlm memahami penuaan
PERAN TEORI DLM MEMAHAMI PENUAAN
  • Landasan & sudut pandang untuk melihat fakta
  • Menjawab pertanyaan filosofi
  • Perawat  relevansi

Pertanyaan evaluasi :

    • Konsisten secara internal & logis?
    • Dukungan empiris?
    • Menghadirkan konsep & kondisi yg dapat dimodifikasi?
    • Mampu membuat perubahan besar?

DISIKAPI

theories of aging
THEORIES OF AGING
  • Biologic Answering basic question regarding physiologic process
  • Sociologic  Roles & relationship
  • Psychologic How an individual responds to task of life (influenced by biology & sociology)
  • Moral/spiritual  exam how an individual seeks to explain & validate their existence
biologic theories of aging
BIOLOGIC THEORIES OF AGING

TIPE PERUBAHAN

(Hayflick, 1996):

  • Deleterious penurunan fungsi
  • Progressive  bertahap
  • Intrinsic
  • Universal  semua spesies
biologic theories of aging1
BIOLOGIC THEORIES OF AGING
  • Stochastic theories

 aging as event that occur randomly & accumulate over time

  • Nonstochastic theories

 aging as certain predetermined,

time phenomena

stochastic theories
STOCHASTIC THEORIES
  • Error Theory
  • Free radical Theory
  • Cross-Linkage Theory
  • Wear and Tear Theory
error theory
ERROR THEORY

Error in transcription of synthesis DNA

system do not function at optimal level

AGING & DEATH

free radical theory
FREE RADICAL THEORY

Product of metabolism

Accumulate & damage the cell membrane

Decrease efficiency

 Body produce antioxidant

cross linkage theory
CROSS-LINKAGE THEORY

Cross-linkage some proteins in abnormal metabolism activities

Waste products accumulate in the cell

Tissues do not function at optimal efficiency

wear tear theory
WEAR & TEAR THEORY
  • This theory equates man as machine.

 care, guaranty

  • Aging is the result of use.
nonstochastic theories
NONSTOCHASTIC THEORIES
  • Programmed Theory

 cells divide a limited number of times

  • Immunity Theory

 the immune system (T- lymphocytes) change

 individual more vulnerable to disease

sociologic theories
SOCIOLOGIC THEORIES
  • Fokus : perub. peran & hub

 adaptasi sosial dlm hidup

  • Prinsip :
    • Penuaan  proses hidup yg panjang
    • Mempengaruhi & dipengaruhi lingkungan
    • Usia berubah tiap waktu & dialami secara berbeda oleh hubungan yg berbeda
sociologic theories1
SOCIOLOGIC THEORIES
  • Disengagement Theory
  • Activity Theory
  • Continuity Theory
  • Age Stratification Theory
  • Person-Environment Fit Theory
disengagement theory
DISENGAGEMENT THEORY
  • Indv menarik diri dari masy & masy mendukung penarikan diri ini.
  • Orientasi pd diri sendiri

KONTROVERSI sifat alami & keunikan dlm berespon thd lingkungan  cacat

activity theory
ACTIVITY THEORY
  • Indv perlu aktivitas yg tetap untuk mempertahankan usia

Kepuasan hidup dan konsep diri

bertambah

continuity theory
CONTINUITY THEORY
  • Respon lansia thd penuaan = respon thd kejadian hidup sebelumnya
  • Kebiasaan, komitmen, pilihan & karakteristik personal lainnya yg berkembang selama dewasa DIPERTAHANKAN
  • Prediksi thd masa lansia
age stratification theory
AGE STRATIFICATION THEORY
  • Manusia terdiri dari kelompok2 menurut usia
  • Orang dan peran dlm kelompok ini berubah & saling mempengaruhi

 tergantung lansia & masy

person environment fit theory
PERSON-ENVIRONMENT FIT THEORY
  • Indv memp kompetensi untuk adaptasi dg lingkungan
  • Kompetensi : kekuatan ego, motorik, biologis, kognitif, & sensori perseptual

LANSIA MENURUN

  • Korelasi kompetensi indv dg lingk : Toleransi Dampak
psychologic theories
PSYCHOLOGIC THEORIES
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
  • Jung’s Theory of individualism
  • Erikson’s Eight Stages of Life
  • Selective Optimization with Compensation
psychologic theories1
PSYCHOLOGIC THEORIES
  • Bgmn seseorang berespon thd tugas perkembangan
  • Dipengaruhi biologi & sosial

 luas

  • Dasar : perkembangan terus berjalan meski menua
  • Mekanisme psikologi : adaptasi, memori, kemampuan belajar, afeksi & motivasi  perub t.l & perkemb.
human needs theory
HUMAN NEEDS THEORY
  • Kebutuhan dasar motivasi
  • Rendah  tinggi
  • Lansia  aktualisasi

Sifat : otonomi

kreatif

bebas

hub interpersonal bertambah

individualism theory
INDIVIDUALISM THEORY
  • 2 tipe manusia: introvert & ekstrovert
  • Lansia : introvert  nostalgia
  • Menua sukses  seimbang

 Menerima kondisi

optimalisasi selektif dg kompensasi
OPTIMALISASI SELEKTIF DG KOMPENSASI
  • Kompensasi penurunan tubuh dg 3 elemen :
  • Seleksi : p pembatasan
  • Optimalisasi : p kehidupan
  • Kompensasi : kompensasi kehilangan yg adaptif
moral spiritual theory
MORAL & SPIRITUAL THEORY
  • SPIRITUALITAS ???
  • Perkemb sbg pemikir moral & spiritual  eksistensi
  • Ns bantu klien dlm krisis hidup  temukan arti

HOLISTIC CARE