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Japanese Aggression. Japan after World War I. Received Germany’s Pacific islands as Mandates from the League of Nations Had the 3 rd largest navy in the world. DISTRUST OF THE WEST. Japan felt that they were not being treated as an equal The refusal to include a racial equality

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japan after world war i
Japan after World War I
  • Received Germany’s Pacific islands as Mandates from the League of Nations
  • Had the 3rd largest navy in the world
distrust of the west
  • Japan felt that they were not being treated as an equal

The refusal to include a racial equality

amendment within the charter of the

League of Nations

United States banned the immigration of Asians to the U.S (Japan responded by boycotting American goods)

social and political tensions
  • Population explosion in Japan during 1920s
  • As Japan’s industry grew its working class wanted democratic reforms
  • At the same time, natural resources were lacking forcing Japan to look elsewhere to find them
emperor hirohito
  • Constitutional monarch, symbol of

traditional authority

  • Behind Emperor was an influential

group of military leaders

-They opposed democratic reform;

-Western influence eroded traditional

Japanese values

    • This gave rise to the Anti-Democratic Nationalist

1930’s a worldwide depression hurts economy of Japan

This helped strengthen the Anti-democratic

Nationalist Position

  • 1922- Signed an international treaty agreeing to

respect China's borders

  • 1928- Signed the Kellogg–Briand Pact renouncing


  • 1929- Great Depression helped enable the militarist

to gain power (they kept the emperor, Hirohitoas a

head of state but ruled in his name)

  • Their goal was to establish a Pacific empireto solve the country’s economic problems by providing raw materials and markets and room for its rising population
invasion of chinese manchuria
Invasion of Chinese Manchuria
  • 1931- Invasion of Chinese Manchuria (the military ignored objections from Japan’s parliament)
  • It proved that the government could not control the military
  • The invasion of Manchuria created international criticism of Japan’s action.
  • The Japanese people reacted to it by rallying support for their country’s actions.
  • The League of Nations protested vigorously- Japan ignored the protests and withdrew from the League in 1933
  • By 1937 Japan’s military totally controlled the government

1937- Japan and China are in a full-fledged

war with each other

Northern China is conquered along with

China’s capital of Nanjing

Japanese troops commit atrocities when they killed tens of thousands of

captured soldiers and civilians in

Nanjing (Rape of Nanjing)

italian aggression
Italian Aggression

1935- Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in October

(The League of Nations condemned the attack and

adopted economic sanctions but not on oil, it was

not effective)

Britain kept the Suez Canal open to Italian ships to

transport troops and supplies to Ethiopia

By giving in to Mussolini in Africa, Britain and

France hoped to keep peace in Europe

With the fall of Ethiopia, the League’s prestige


hitler s territorial expansion
Hitler’s Territorial Expansion
  • Hitler had long pledged to undo the Versailles Treaty:
  • He ignored the limitations set on the size of the German army (The League issued only a mild condemnation)
saar basin
Saar Basin
  • 1935-Residents of the Saar region, which had been ruled under a mandate by the League of Nations since the Versailles Treaty, decided to join Germany after

holding a popular

  • plebiscite.

1936- Re-occupied the Rhineland (30 mile-wide demilitarizedzone between France and Germany) in March

This action violated the Treaty of Versailles and the

Locarno Pact

The situation brought

great tension between

France and Germany.

However the French were

unwilling to risk war, they

could not get British


The British urged appeasement,

giving in to an aggressor to keep peace.

axis powers
Axis Powers
  • 1936- Rome-Berlin Axis (October)

Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis (November)

Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)

  • 1936- Germany and Italy sent troops, tanks,

and airplanes to help Francisco Franco's

fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War

  • The Western democracies remained neutral in this war
  • 1938- “Anschluss” (union), Hitler sent his army into Austria (before the people of Austria voted for Anschluss) and annexed it
  • This was in violation of

The Treaty of Versailles

which prohibited


with Germany

  • 1938- Hitler demanded the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia (September)
  • This was a western border (outer-ring) of about 3 million German-speaking people that lived in area 
  • This heavily fortified area also formed the Czechs' main defense against Germany
  • The Czechs refused

Hitler’s demands

and asked France for


  • Hitler threatened to take

the Sudetenland by force.

munich conference
Munich Conference
  • On the verge of war with France and Britain, Mussolini proposed a meeting of Germany,

France, Britain, and Italy in Munich, Germany.

  • Held on September 29, 1938
  • The Czechs and Russians were not invited

Great Britain-

Chamberlain(Prime Minister)


Daladier (Prime Minister)


Italy- Hitler













British prime minister Neville Chamberlain believed that he could preserve peace by giving in to Hitler’s demand.

  • Britain and France agreed that Hitler could take the Sudetenland. In exchange, Hitler pledged to respect Czechoslovakia’s new borders.

Winston Churchill, then a member of the British Parliament, strongly disagreed. He opposed the appeasement policy and gloomily warned of its consequences:


“We are in the presence of a disaster of the first magnitude. . . . we have sustained a defeat without a war. . . . And do not suppose that this is the end. . . . This is only the first sip, the first foretaste of a bitter cup which will be proffered to us year by year unless, by a supreme recovery of moral health and martial vigor, we arise again and take our stand for freedom as in the olden time.”

WINSTON CHURCHILL,speech before the House of Commons,October 5, 1938

  • All of Hitler’s demands met
  • Marked the formal passing of leadership in Europe from France to Germany
  • Great Britain and France made guarantees to Poland, Greece and Rumania (this ended the policy of appeasement)

*Less than six months (March 1939) after the

Munich meeting, Hitler took Czechoslovakia.

The last Democracy in Central Europe

  • 1939- Memelannexed to Germany from Lithuania (March)
  • German troops occupied the Lithuanian Memel region, which Germany had lost under the Versailles treaty. Lithuania, which governed the region, was

forced to sign a treaty

that returned the

Memel region to


li l hitler
Li’l Hitler

russo german non aggression pact
Russo-German Non-Aggression Pact
  • Britain and France asked the Soviet Union to join them in stopping Hitler’s aggression. As Stalin talked with Britain and France, he also bargained with Hitler.
russo german non aggression pact1
Russo-German Non-Aggression Pact
  • 1939- Russo-German Non-Aggression Pact (August)
  • Fascist Germany and Communist Russia now publicly pledged never to attack one another.
  • The agreement (secret) > Both countries actually agreed to attack and divide Poland