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What are traditional sources?. Introducing the book. Books are your friend . Edited for content Reliable Accurate Non Biased. The information you get is real. At least, you are sure that the books are a source of reliable information. Primary Sources.

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what are traditional sources

What are traditional sources?

Introducing the book.

books are your friend
Books are your friend
  • Edited for content
  • Reliable
  • Accurate
  • Non Biased
  • The information you get is real. At least, you are sure that the books are a source of reliable information.
primary sources
Primary Sources
  • A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event.
  • Some types of primary sources include:

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable):

Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records 

  • CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art 
  • RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings
  • Examples of primary sources include:
  • Diary of Anne Frank - Experiences of a Jewish family during WWII 
  • The Constitution of Canada - Canadian History 
  • A journal article reporting NEW research or findings 
  • Weavings and pottery - Native American history 
  • Plato's Republic - Women in Ancient Greece 
secondary sources
Secondary Sources
  • A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event.
  • Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them.
  • Some types of secondary sources include: PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias 
  • Examples of secondary sources include: A journal/magazine article which interprets or reviews previous findings 
  • A history textbook 
  • A book about the effects of WWI 
search by keyword for primary sources
Search by keyword for Primary Sources
  • charters
  • correspondence
  • diaries
  • early works
  • interviews
  • manuscripts
  • oratory
  • pamphlets
  • personal narratives
  • sources
  • speeches
  • letters
  • documents
reference books

Reference works are usually referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read from beginning to end. The writing style used in these works is informative; the authors avoid use of the first person, and emphasize facts.

Use the indexes to find the information that you need.

Reference Books





mla formatting
MLA Formatting



Microsoft Office

big 6 the steps of research
Big 6the steps of research!

Task Definition

Information Seeking Strategies

Location and Access

Use of Information




Task Definition

Get a general understanding of your topic and assignment.

Ask questions so that you know what you are to do and by when.

Start your research with an encyclopedia, dictionary, short article, etc. to get basic and brief information in order to gain a general understanding of your topic.


Information Seeking Strategies

Consider which sources are best for your topic and project.

How current should your information be?

Consider what questions you need answered in order to determine which sources might be most helpful.

Are there reputable and expert sources for your topic?

Allow enough time to find the information.

location and access
Location and Access

Gather as much information as you can.

Use index cards to record your information. This allows for easy sorting.

Have a variety of sources.

use of information
Use of Information

Organize your information.

Be selective. Use the best information. You do not need to use everything.

Remember your task as you put your information together.

Determine the best way to organize and present your information.


Put it together!

Keep your task in mind as you create your project.


Do a self-evaluation.

Are there any weak or incomplete parts?

Can you answer questions about your topic and/or project?

Did you allow enough time?

internet research
Internet Research

Web Site Evaluation Guide

Anyone can have a web site

Who created or maintains this web site?

Are the aims of the site clear?

Is the site relevant for my purpose?

Can the information be checked?

When was the site produced?

Is the information biased in any way? Opinion or fact?

Is the site associated with a reputable association or organization?

works cited
Works Cited

An alphabetical list of sources used in the project

Use hanging indentation (First line of each entry is not indented, but all others are.)

Follow the proper format (MLA, APA, etc.)

The purpose of works cited is to supply the reader with the necessary information to find the same information that you used for your project.


Works Cited

The Big 6TM, Information Literacy for the

Information Age. Eds. Mike Eisenberg and Bob

Berkowitz. 30 Aug. 2004. 7 Sept. 2004


Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research

Papers, Sixth Edition. New York: The Modern Language

Association of America, 2003.