The Artist in the Classroom Barry Oreck, Ph.D.
Do you have any of these kids in your school? Sculptor Photographer Singer Poet Filmmaker Violinist Would you know it if you did? Dancer Songwriter Painter Composer Painter Architect Guitarist Architect Choreographer Actor Cellist Singer
What do we know and learn through artistic experience? How can we maintain an artistic attitude and bring more artistry into our teaching?
GIFTED AND TALENTED What do we mean by talented? What do we mean by gifted? What’s the difference between the two ?
Who is an Artist? Think of an artistic experience in your own life What are the characteristics of this experience? What were you like when you were engaged in it?
Who is an Artist? What do you mean when you say someone is an artist?
TEACHER AS ARTIST Teaching is a, “practical art...a process that calls for intuition, creativity, improvisation and expressiveness.” N.L. Gage, The Scientific Basis of the Art of Teaching, 1978 The teacher’s status as an artist is “measured by his ability to foster the attitude of the artist in those who study with him” John Dewey, How We Think, 1933 “Teaching is artistic in character in many of the ways in which all art is artistic: it provides a deep sense of aesthetic experience to both perceiver and actor when it is well done.” Eliot Eisner, The Kind of Schools We Need, 1999
Henry Schaefer-Simmern (1948) The Unfolding of Artistic Activity (foreword by John Dewey)
What is an Artistic Experience? • Attention to form and qualities • A sense of wholeness or completeness • Connection to emotions • Open-ended • Transformation
What is Art? Art exists, “not in objects, but in a way of seeing” Lawrence Weschler – Seeing is Forgetting the Name of the Thing One Sees, 1982 Art as experience. John Dewey “The soul never thinks without an image.” Aristotle “Art is the social technique of emotion.” Lev Vygotsky, The Psychology of Art,1971
Perception Noticing details Using all of our senses Perceiving patterns, similarities, relationships
What do we know and learn through the Arts? Antonio Damasio (1999)The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness
Empathy Not sympathy “Putting yourself in another’s shoes” Cognitive and emotional aspects
Self Reflection Metacognition Listening to yourself and what you’ve created Time
Imagination Imagery Play Taking risks
STUDENT AS ARTIST • High Energy • Creativity, Imagination • Special Sensitivity to Emotions • May not be “Linear” • Need to Express Ideas, Feelings
WHAT MAKES GIFTEDNESS? A I U C C T P Task Commitment Above Average Ability Creativity RENZULLI THREE RING CONCEPTION OF GIFTEDNESS
Results of Arts Talent Assessment • Approximately 15-20% of students identified as ready for advanced instruction • Represent general demographic and academic makeup of the schools • Inclusive of bilingual and special education students
Results of Arts Talent Assessment • Representl demographic and academic makeup of the schools • Inclusive of bilingual and special education students • 65% reading below grade level • 25% reading in the lowest quartile • 10-15% exhibit severe behavior and/or attendance problems
Self-Regulation andSelf-Efficacy Albert Bandura Barry Zimmerman Edward Deci
Self-Regulatory Behaviors • Paying Attention • avoids distractions • listens carefully • Using Feedback • uses criticism to improve work • maintains corrections • Problem Solving (Curricular) • comes up with different or unique approaches to a challenge • doesn't stop with one answer • thinks for self -- is not swayed by the opinions or answers of others
Self-Regulatory Behaviors • Self-Initiating • takes responsibility for learning • moves self to a productive place to learn • works on task without explicit instructions from the teacher • Asking Questions • asks good questions • is not afraid to ask when instructions or information is unclear
Self-Regulatory Behaviors • Taking Risks • offers opinions, even if they are unpopular • volunteers readily • Cooperating • works well in group activities • follows instructions
Self-Regulatory Behaviors • Persevering • doesn't stop when it gets hard • continues when the teacher is not looking • Setting Goals • sets up specific interim goals to solve a problem • recognizes the sequence of tasks needed
National Educational Longitudinal Study NELS:88 data (+25,000 students) Involvement in the Arts and Human Development Champions of Change Report James S. Catterall, Richard Chapleau, John Iwanaga, UCLA • Positive academic developments for children involved in the arts (high and low SES) increasing over time grade 8-10-12. • High level of music involvement show significant improvement in grade 12 math performance. • Sustained involvement in theater show increases in reading proficiency, self-concept and motivation, higher levels of empathy and tolerance for others.
National Educational Longitudinal Study NELS:88 data (+25,000 students) Involvement in the Arts and Human Development Champions of Change Report James S. Catterall, Richard Chapleau, John Iwanaga, UCLA Students involved in the arts: • Watch significantly less television. • Are more likely to consider community service important. • Are less likely to report being bored in school.
Artistic Talent Development for Urban Youth:The Promise and the Challenge Barry Oreck, Susan Baum, Heather McCartney The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Research Monograph Series www.gifted.uconn.edu
FLOW “It’s like I became addicted to dance.” Elementary student
SELF-REGULATION “I think you call it mind over movement. You have to really listen to the song and while you're playing you still have to listen to make sure you're in the right key. So you use your mind to tell you the part of the song and you use movement to keep playing it and doing what you're doing. The mind over movement has helped me listen and take notes at the same time.” Intermediate student
SELF-REGULATION “When someone pushes you and you find that you improve, you learn to practice. Because you know if you practice it, you get it. So they gave us that start-off push. You didn’t want to. You were tired. And then the next class, you didn’t need the push anymore. Then you know that ‘if I can do this with my body, then I must be able to do this with my mind. I may not be perfect, but I am getting better.’ So it does help when you see it physically.” High school student
IDENTITY “Without (the group) I’d have no real friends who love music the way I do. School is awful and nothing is right. My uncle was killed, there’s no music at school, and no opportunities for me. Intermediate student
IDENTITY “It’s a big part of the music knowing that you have somebody that shares something with you. I think it’s mostly the music, knowing that you have people there who know what you know, and you can play the music with them and you understand them. When you talk what they call “music talk,” they understand you. I don’t think that anybody else would understand you and them in a conversation. It’s like you’re connected through your mind. It’s like this telepathic thing, you know?” Intermediate student
The teachers held strong beliefs that all students are capable of high achievement. “As long as you find something in the child that is special and you help that child see that something special within them I think they can overcome any problem.” Maria – 4th grade The best thing [about arts activities] is that I learn things about kids that I never would learn when they’re doing math and reading. So you see different sides of them. Mark 5th grade
Teachers integrated art into many subjects for a variety of instructional purposes. Everything’s connected...I like this concept of teaching not subject by subject but teaching by concept. If we’re talking about patterns let’s talk about patterns in all subject areas. If we’re talking about the concept of before and after, let’s talk about it in all subject areas. And then teach them value lessons as well, like there’s consequences to your actions. If I have a strong handle on the concept I could basically link to any subject matter... and that’s where I get the creativeness out. Jane 4th grade
The teachers articulated a wide range of clear performance and personal growth goals for students through involvement in arts processes. “It’s like slowing down the process of their thinking sometimes. If you have to draw about it – draw it and write it – you’re going to stop and think about it more. So that seems important. It’s a meditative thing, almost, if you have to draw it.” Ted 2nd grade
The teachers articulated a wide range of clear performance and personal growth goals for students through involvement in arts processes. Some kids wouldn’t want to take a guess for fear of being put down. The class becomes so much more group oriented that they don’t want to hurt each other and that helps a lot – allowing them to get up and express themselves and have the courage to trust each other and learn how to work with people. Penny 5th grade
Proven success according to external measures, such as tests, provided a level of autonomy and confidence. “When [a supervisor] has the confidence that you’re doing the right thing, you seem to be able to veer from the day-to-day process. We took the practice tests and I was the only class that did very well so I’m being left alone. I can just continue my routine.” Jane, 5th grade