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Turbulent Decade 1919-1929. Section 1: Postwar Troubles Section 2: Republicans in Power Section 3: A Nation Divided. Section 1: Postwar Troubles . Demobilization Transition from wartime to peacetime production levels Caused social and economic strain Rise in unemployment
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Turbulent Decade1919-1929 Section 1: Postwar Troubles Section 2: Republicans in Power Section 3: A Nation Divided
Section 1: Postwar Troubles Demobilization Transition from wartime to peacetime production levels Caused social and economic strain Rise in unemployment Shortages made prices high Recession Effected many not just factory workers Farms Women lost jobs they’d held in war, men came home from war • Labor Strife • The Seattle general strike • February 6, 1919 • 60,000 workers • Immigrants labeled as “muddle-headed foreigners” in newspapers • Non-violent strike • Ended after 5 days with no relief • The Boston Police Strike • September 1919 • 75% walked out • 2 nights of violence • Strikers denounced as “agents of Lenin” • Who is this in reference to?
The steel strike Two weeks after Boston strike 365,000 workers walked out of Pennsylvania steel mills Protested low wages Steel companies brought in new workers African Americans Mexicans Police officers aided companies Companies hired thugs to intimidate strikers Strike ended January 9, 1919 The United Mine Workers strike November 1, 1919 400,000 coal miners walked out wanted: 5 day work week, 50% pay increase, six hour workday John L. Lewis – organizer of strike and president of United Mine Workers
The Red Scare -period of anti-communist hysteria 1919-1920 Revolution in Russia led by Vladimir Lenin Marxism Marxists in America Eugene V. Debs – labor leader, Socialist Party member, ran for president 5 times between 1900 and 1920 American Marxists didn’t promote the violent takeover of government, some radicals did, but majority did not The Palmer Raids A. Mitchell Palmer (attorney general) home bombed by an Italian anarchist (died in blast) Raids were to capture alleged “radicals” “Witch hunt” Deportation
Sacco and Vanzetti Nicola Sacco- shoemaker Bartolommeo Vanzetti – fish peddler charged with murder of a paymaster and a guard in a 1920 robbery outside a shoe factory near Boston. Tried before Judge Thayer (hated radicals) Since both men held radical political views, were immigrants, and had avoided military service it looked bad. Their witnesses provided alibis, the jury found them guilty. Both were sentenced to death. Why do you think this happened? The verdict led to civil liberties defenders to protest, led to world wide protest and attention. August 23, 1927 they were executed. Recent historical information shows that one may have been involved but the question remains… was their political views damaging to them more than evidence?
Section 2: Republicans in Power Election 1920 Warren G. Harding (Republican) pro-business platform tax revision, higher tariffs, limits on immigration, some aid to farmers return to “normalcy” received 16 million votes, 60% popular vote 404 electoral votes Opponent James Cox 127 electoral votes Harding’s Pro-Business Administration “less government in business and more business in government” Secretary of Treasury – Andrew Mellon Secretary of Commerce – Herbert Hoover both believed gov’t should not interfere with the economy except to aid business Bureau of the Budget – Charles Dawes – set out to eliminate debt by slashing spending Fordney-McCumber Tarrif Act 1922 tariff rates on manufactured goods at an all time high Mellon proposed to eliminate war taxes on wealthy Seemed to work… unemployment was down
The Effects of Republican Policies merger – the combining of two or more companies – more than 1000 took place during this time = greater efficiency, higher profits By 1930, about 200 corporations owned about ½ the corporate wealth in the US. 1923-1929 – businesses’ profits increased 60% - workers’ incomes increased only 10% What effects would this have on the nation? Organized labor suffers “yellow-dog contracts” prevented workers from joining unions American Plan – union free open shops New Directions for Women Jane Addams – Hull House… what is the urban legend about Hull House? What is the moral? feminists – women’s rights activists and suffrage campaign Alice Paul and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the US and every place subject to its jurisdiction”
Many women opposed the ERA Mary Anderson –director of US Women’s Bureau, feared the amendment would make legislation for regulating hours and working conditions for women unconstitutional ERA failed The Enduring Republican Presidency The Harding Scandals “Ohio Gang” –group of his friends, used their connection to Harding to enrich themselves at public expense Teapot Dome Scandal – Secretary of Interior Albert Fall got Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby to give up control of naval oil reserves to his department. Fall then granted private leases to the reserves in Elk Hills, CA and Teapot Dome reserves in WY. He received personal loans, cash, and cattle. He was convicted of taking bribes and jailed.
Coolidge takes charge Harding dies in office, Coolidge (VP) fired all involved in scandals – tried to restore reputation of presidency “Silent Cal” won nomination in 1924 Democrats split on prohibition Progressives: Robert La Follette Coolidge won by a landslide 15.7 million votes Dems: 8.4 million Progressive: 4.8 million Coolidge’s pro-business position “the business of America is business” favored legislation that aided businesses Helped pass the Revenue Act of 1926 – repealed the gift tax, cut estate taxes in half, reduced taxes on the wealthy. Vetoed spending bills, such as those to provide aid to WWI vets, the McNary-Haugen Bill (sell surplus crops abroad by aiding farmers) Didn’t run for reelection even though very popular… said found the job burdensome.
Election of 1928 Herbert Hoover (Republican) and Alfred E. Smith (Democrat) Smith opposed because he was Catholic Hoover got 58% of popular vote even won for the first time since Reconstruction several southern states Section 3: A Nation Divided African Americans Move Northward – Chicago, Detroit, NYC, Midwest … why? Reasons to move: economic opportunities (but first to lose jobs), hopes of less discrimination Violence erupts: Chicago – July 1919- boy drowns in Lake Michigan when a white man throws rocks at him stopping him from coming onto beach, police do not arrest anyone, fights break out, riots for over a week. White gangs attacking blacks and property. By end, 38 killed, 537 injured Race Riots by 1919 – 25 race riots June 1921- 30 died in Tulsa, OK race riot
The Return of the Ku Klux Klan 1915- Stone Mountain, GA by William Joseph Simmons kidnappings, beatings, lynchings – terrorism anti: African Americans, Catholics, immigrants, Jews, “suspected” radicals membership soared during Red Scare- LA, OH, OK, OR and TX became very powerful in Indiana; Top membership mid-1920s some 5 million; later membership dropped because of decrease in hysteria over “Reds”, economic stability and boom, publicity of terrorism by newspapers, corruption (promoters were getting rich from membership fees and sales of Klan products). Indiana Grand Dragon – David Stephenson convicted of second-degree murder didn’t do much for membership African Americans Defend Their Rights Antilynching campaign led by NAACP- generated public support with little success. African American unionization - not allowed to rise above unskilled labor; couldn’t join local labor unions or the AFL A. Philip Randolph founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (1925) wanted to improve conditions for African Americans working for Pullman Company – Pullman refused to recognize the union, through support from the NAACP finally got recognition from Pullman in late 1930s
Black nationalism: Pan-Africanism- aided to unite African descendents throughout the world leader: Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1914 goals: build black-owned businesses to eliminate dependence on government & set up an independent black homeland in Africa Spoke to the masses unlike De Bois who spoke to the educated founded the Black Star Steamship Co. jailed for mail fraud, pardoned in 1927 and ordered to be deported. Movement lost momentum after he was jailed Immigration Restrictions Nativism Law passed by Congress set quota from each nationality already in the country to 3% except Asians who were barred Immigration Act of 1924 – reduced the quota to 2% of the 1890 populations – what implication does this have? Who were immigrants in the 1800s? limited immigrants from Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe
Mexican American Migration The law didn’t effect Mexicans as employers in the SW were eager to have them, agricultural workers Migrated to Chicago, Detroit, LA, San Antonio, El Paso Young women worked at bakeries, hotels, laundries American Indian Life Dawes Act – attempted to “Americanize” Indians by dividing tribal lands Bursum Bill – designed to legalize non-Indian claim to Pueblo land. Pueblos appealed to Americans, as a result the bill failed to pass. 1924 Congress granted citizenship to all American Indians, didn’t eliminate poverty or hardships. Was done as recognition for those who fought in WWI -End of Notes-