Person environment and aging
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PERSON-ENVIRONMENT AND AGING. What is it?. Dynamic, interactive system Person and environment have to be studied jointly A person’s behaviour is a function of both the person and their environment – especially the person’s perception of their environment. Competence and environmental press.

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Person environment and aging

  • Dynamic, interactive system

  • Person and environment have to be studied jointly

  • A person’s behaviour is a function of both the person and their environment – especially the person’s perception of their environment


Competence and environmental press
Competence and environmental press

  • Competence: best functional capacity of an individual

    Measured in five areas:

  • Biological health

  • Sensory-perceptual functioning

  • Motor skills

  • Cognitive skills

  • Ego strength


Competence and environmental press1
Competence and environmental press

  • Environmental press: demands placed by the environment on each individual

  • The demands can be:

  • Physical

  • Interpersonal

  • Social


Lawton and nahemov s model
Lawton and Nahemov’s model

  • The less competent a person is, the more impact the environment has


Kahana s congruence model
Kahana’s Congruence Model

  • People search for environments that best meet their needs

  • Environments vary in their ability to meet different people’s needs and demands

  • Congruence is especially important when options are limited

  • This model is helpful in assessing long-term care facilities


Stress and coping theory
Stress and Coping Theory

  • Older adults’ adaptation to the environment depends on

  • Their perception of environmental stress and

  • Their attempts to cope

  • Social systems and institutions may buffer the effects of stress


Loss continuum concept
Loss-Continuum Concept

  • Aging seen as a progressive series of losses that reduces one’s social participation

  • Therefore, home and neighbourhood become more important

  • Very important to help individuals maintain competence and independence

  • This model is more a practical guide and not a theory


Concept of everyday competence
Concept of Everyday Competence

  • Ability to perform behaviours essential for independent living:

  • Physical

  • Psychological

  • Social


Willis model of everyday competence
Willis Model of Everyday Competence

  • Antecedents: individual (e.g. health, cognitive status) and sociocultural (e.g. social policy, health care policy)

  • Components: intraindividual (how a person experiences their health, cognition) and contextual (how a particular policy is implemented in each case)

  • Mechanisms: variables that can affect expression of competence, e.g. personal perception of self-competence or of control

  • Outcomes: primarily physical and psychological well-being, the basic components of successful aging


What is optimal aging
What Is Optimal Aging?

  • Avoiding disease

  • Engaged in life (as opposed to withdrawal)

  • Good cognitive and physical functioning

  • The last two more important: many seniors with diseases age successfully

  • Important: dignity and independence


Strategies
Strategies

  • Healthy lifestyle

  • Cognitive stimulation

  • Positive, optimistic outlook

  • Social network

  • Healthy finances

  • Importance of health promotion programs adapted to all groups (SES, ethnicity, etc)

  • Four levels of preventive intervention (see text)