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William Kim Science Research – Period 4 Mrs. Flanagan. Polyphenols and Aging. Need. Figure 1: Age Related Changes in Motor Skills and Plasticity . Knowledge Base. http://www.mayday-info.dk/715.0.html. Knowledge Base. http://shirleywho.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/c-elegans\_esa.jpg.

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william kim science research period 4 mrs flanagan
William Kim

Science Research – Period 4

Mrs. Flanagan

Polyphenols and Aging


Figure 1: Age Related Changes in Motor Skills and Plasticity

knowledge base
Knowledge Base


knowledge base1
Knowledge Base



knowledge base2
Knowledge Base


knowledge base3
Knowledge Base


Literature Review

Fig. 2Blueberry polyphenols extend lifespan in strains of C. elegans.

Wilson et. al. 2006

literature review
Literature Review

Figure 3: Blueberry polyphenols slow decline of pharynx contraction in C. elegans.

Wilson et. al. 2006

literature review1
Literature Review

Figure 4: Mean lifespan of different genotypes of C. elegans

literature review2
Literature Review
  • James Joseph (2007-2009)
  • Tested and still testing fruit polyphenols and their effects on aging and the brain of mice
  • Tested effects of blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, plum juice, and other berry fruits

Therefore the purpose of this experiment is to test the ability of fruit polyphenols in the prolonging of lifespanin C. elegans.


Null Hypothesis: The blueberries, etc. will have no effect in prolonging the lifespan of C. elegans.

Alternate Hypothesis: The blueberries, etc. will have a significant effect in prolonging the lifespan of C. elegans.

Polyphenols and Aging Methodology

Caenorhabditis elegans

Short lifespan of about 2-3 weeks, rapid generation time, and experiemental flexibilty

Control Medium

Sample Size = 5

Medium + Fed crude blueberry extract (Vaccinium angustifolium)

Sample Size = 5

Medium + Fed crude blackberry extract

Sample Size = 5

Medium + Fed crude strawberry extract

Sample Size = 5

Medium + Fed crude Plum extract

Sample Size = 5


Average pumping rate of pharynx contraction is recorded with the use of Motic Plus Camera attached to a stereomicroscope.

Statistical Analysis

protocols for measurement
Protocols for Measurement
  • Commercially prepared single strength wild blueberry juice (Vaccinium angustifolium) is applied to a preconditioned C18 Column
  • C18 column is washed with water to remove fructose, glucose, and organic acids of blueberries, then with 100% methanol to obtain the total polyphenolic fraction


protocols for measurement1
Protocols for Measurement
  • Fruit polyphenol extracts is added to NGM agar plates of C. elegans on the first day of the lifespan assay
  • Lifespan scoring is initiated after hermaphrodites complete their final larval molt, on the first day of adulthood
  • Pharynx pumping rates are measured on days 4, 6, 8, and 10 of C. elegans adulthood
protocols for measurement2
Protocols for Measurement
  • Pharynx contraction rate recorded with Motic Plus camera attached to a stereomicroscope
  • Pumps per minute measured


  • Motic Plus with Stereomicroscope available in lab for pharynx contraction observation
  • Fruit polyphenols are easily obtainable
  • C. elegans are easily obtainable and culturable

Total Price: $590.95


“Aging Statistics.” Administration on Aging. (2009) 24 March 2009.

“Antioxidants.” McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology. McGraw-Hill, 2001.

“Antioxidants.” MedlinePlus. (2009) 9 Feb. 2009.

Carlson, Rick E., Kirby, Brett S., Voyles, Wyatt F., and Dinenno, Frank A. “Evidence for impaired skeletal muscle contraction-induced rapid vasodilation in aging humans.” American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology294 (2008): H1963-H1970.

Joseph, James. "ARS Project: The effects of walnuts on age related changes in neuroprotection, inflammatory signaling and behavior (414597)." .

Kenney, Richard A. Physiology of Aging: A Synopsis. Chicago, London. Year Book Medical Publishers, INC, 1982.

Larsson, L., Grimby, G., and Karlsson, J.. “Muscle Strength and Speed of Movement in Relation to Age and Muscle Morphology.” Journal of Applied Physiology46 (1979): 451-456.

"NCLD - Dyspraxia." NCLD - Home. 04 May 2009 .

Oliver, Rush H., Albury, Acchia N.J., and Mousseau, Timothy A.. “Programmed Cell Death in Flight Muscle Histolysis of the House Cricket.” Journal of Insect Physiology 53 (2007): 30-39.

Scalbert, Augustin, Johnson, Ian T., and Saltmarsh, Mike. “Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (2005): 215S-7S.

“Types of contractions.” Muscle Physiology. (2006). University of California. 31 May 2006. < http://muscle.ucsd.edu/musintro/contractions.shtml>

USDA/Agricultural Research Service. "Adding Walnuts To Good Diet May Help Older People Improve Motor And Behavioral Skills." ScienceDaily 25 April 2009. 5 May 2009 .

“What Is an Antioxidant?.” American Dietetic Association. (2006). 14 Sept. 2006. .

Wilson, Mark A., Shukitt-Hale, Barbara, Kalt, Wilhemina, Ingram, Donald K., Joseph, James A., and Wolkow, Catherine A. “Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditiselegans.” Aging Cell. 5 (2006): 59-68.