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Establishing Protected Areas (Ch. 15). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9T1vfsHYiKY. Establishing Protected Areas (Ch. 15). Essential: ex situ not long-term solution Global land surface: 12.5% protected (6% strictly protected). Good news: Protection growing (Fig. 15.1).

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establishing protected areas ch 15
Establishing Protected Areas (Ch. 15)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9T1vfsHYiKY

establishing protected areas ch 151
Establishing Protected Areas (Ch. 15)
  • Essential: ex situ not long-term solution
    • Global land surface: 12.5% protected (6% strictly protected).

Good news:

Protection growing

(Fig. 15.1)

levels of protection
Levels of Protection
  • IUCN system (levels I to VI)
levels of protection1
Levels of Protection
  • IUCN system
    • I) Strict reserves/wilderness areas. Undisturbed & well protected. 2 million sq. km
levels of protection2
Levels of Protection
  • IUCN system
    • II) National parks. No resource extraction. 4 million sq. km. #1 in area!
    • III) National landmarks and monuments. Small areas with unique natural features. 190,000 sq. km
levels of protection3
Levels of Protection
  • IUCN system
    • IV) Managed reserves. Some harvesting allowed (ex; wildlife refuges). 2.5 million sq. km
    • V) Protected landscapes/seascapes. Traditional uses (orchards, grazing, etc.). 1 million sq. km

SCB: Bon Secour NWR Sept. 2012

levels of protection4
Levels of Protection
  • IUCN system
    • VI) Managed protected areas. Sustainable production. 3.5 million sq. km. #2 in area!
new protected areas created by
New protected areas created by:
  • 1) Government. Usually national (regional or local too)
new protected areas created by1
New protected areas created by:
  • 2) Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
    • Ex, Nature Conservancy (Box 16.1)
    • Buys land, conservation easements (legal restrictions on land use)
      • U.S.: >6 million ha
      • Outside U.S.: 50 million ha

SCB:

Oct. 2012

new protected areas created by2
New protected areas created by:
  • 3) Customs native people
    • Ex, Madagascar spiny forest—Mahafaly people. Taboo (moral restriction) to destroy plants/animals

Who am I?

new protected areas created by3
New protected areas created by:
  • 4) Biological field stations: Universities
    • Ex, University California Reserves
    • 34 reserves: 130,000 acres.
main steps to create new areas
Main Steps to Create New Areas
  • 1) Identify species or communities with highest priority
  • 2) Identify areas to meet priorities
  • 3) Link new areas to network.
setting priorities
Setting priorities
  • Distinctiveness: rarity/endemism, taxonomic status
  • Endangerment: degree of threat
  • Utility: present or potential value to people.

Who am I?

step 1 setting priorities
Step 1: Setting priorities
  • Distinctiveness
    • Rarity/endemism, taxonomic uniqueness
    • Tuatara!Rhynchocephalian (“beak-head” reptile)
step 1 setting priorities1
Step 1: Setting priorities
  • Endangerment: high!
  • Utility: ecotourism
region example
Region Example
  • Western Ghats/Sri Lanka (hotspot!)

Hotspot review!

community example
Community Example
  • Western Ghats/Sri Lanka
    • Distinctiveness: Lots endemic plants
    • Endangerment: Logging, fires, overharvest, fragmentation
    • Utility: Watershed value, forest products
main steps to create new areas1
Main Steps to Create New Areas
  • 1) Identify species or communities with highest priority
  • 2) Identify areas to meet priorities
  • 3) Link new areas to network.
step 2 identifying areas
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • 1) Species approaches
    • Focal species: impetus for protection of area
      • Ex: Flagship species--charismatic megafauna
      • Ex: Indicator species--associated with endangered community

Who am I?

step 2 identifying areas1
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • Ex, red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW)
    • Federally endangered
    • Nests old pines (loblolly or longleaf)
    • Snake predation: drill resin wells
  • Indicator old pine forests.
step 2 identifying areas2
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • Species approaches
    • Value as “umbrella species:” cast protective shadow over all in habitat
step 2 identifying areas3
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • 1) Species approaches
  • 2) Diversity indicators: better-known groups used
    • Exs, Important Bird Areas (IBAs) and Important Plant Areas (IPAs)

Note: EBA=IBA

and

CPD=IPA

step 2 identifying areas4
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • Diversity indicators
    • Species richness (+ rarity)

Fig. 15.7:

Darker areas with

more species and

more % rare species

step 2 identifying areas5
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • Diversity indicators
    • Hotspots: Covered earlier! (Endemism + threat level)
step 2 identifying areas6
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • 1) Species approaches
  • 2) Diversity indicators
  • 3) Community/ecosystem approaches
    • 1) Protect self-sustaining unit
    • 2) Protect ecosystem services
    • 3) Economically defensible (value ecosystem services).

A list!!

step 2 identifying areas7
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • Ex: Identify by C:P ratio
  • Ratio area Converted: area Protected

Low priority

High priority

step 2 identifying areas8
Step 2: Identifying areas
  • Wilderness: Little human impact, low density
    • Large mammals can survive
    • Problem developing countries: magnet for people. Population growth twice global rate!
getting info
Getting info
  • Time short, areas not surveyed previously
  • Solution 1: Rapid biodiversity assessment teams.
  • Conservation International: RAP (Rapid Assessment Program)

RAP expert Slim Shady

getting info1
Getting info
  • Programs for:
    • Terrestrial
    • Freshwater (AquaRAP)
    • Marine (Marine Biodiversity Analysis)
  • Similar idea: Biodiversity Blitz (BioBlitz)

NY City!

getting info2
Getting info
  • Solution 2: Use ecological principles.
    • Select unique habitats/communities, cover entire elevational range, etc. (Indonesia: Irian Jaya).

New Guinea: 2nd largest island in world

main steps to create new areas2
Main Steps to Create New Areas
  • 1) Identify species or communities with highest priority
  • 2) Identify areas to meet priorities
  • 3) Link new areas to network.
linking to the network
Linking to the network
  • Main topic Ch. 16
  • Gap analysis: determine effectiveness ecosystem and community conservation.
gap analysis steps
Gap analysis steps

Step 1!

  • 1) Data
  • 2) Conservation goals
  • 3) Overlay existing areas: find gaps
  • 4) Identify new areas
  • 5) Acquire new areas, develop management plans
  • 6) Monitor new areas (goals met?)
gap analysis
Gap analysis
  • Uses Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques
  • Map layers: soils, vegetation, rare species, protected areas, etc.
  • Alabama Gap Analysis Project
  • HQ AU (Dr. Barry Grand).
concepts 4 r s of network design
Concepts:4 R’s of Network Design
  • Representation: Include all conservation units
  • Resiliency: Large enough, well-protected for future
  • Redundancy: Protect >1 area each type
  • Reality: Funds and political support to acquire and manage areas

A list!!

design issues
Design Issues
  • Major issues (Fig. 16.1)
  • 1) Number?
  • 2) Size?
  • 3) Shape?
  • 4) Linkage?
  • 5) Management?
design issues number
Design Issues: Number
  • Few reserves/more reserves?

Fig. 16.1

design issues size
Design Issues: Size
  • Large or small?

Fig. 16.1

Why?

design issues size1
Design Issues: Size
  • Large better
  • Fig. 16.2: African parks/protected areas

Assume MVP=

1000 animals

design issues size2
Design Issues: Size
  • Large better
  • Fig. 16.3: Extinction rates US/Canada parks (animals)

Fig. 16.3

Lesson:

inverse relation

size and

extinction rate!

Genetic drift: Solution?

design issues size3
Design Issues: Size
  • Management!
  • Ex, genetic drift minimized by moving organisms between reserves.

So is small useless?

design issues size4
Design Issues: Size
  • Small can be helpful
    • Ex, 1999 study Australian woodlands
    • Plots 50 m square contained native insect species
  • Conclusion: Mix better than large only

Fig. 16.1

size general recommendations
Size: General recommendations
  • 1) Make big
    • Large populations
    • Great habitat diversity
    • Intact ecosystems

Fig. 16.1

size general recommendations1
Size: General recommendations
  • 2) Create buffer zone at edge (reduce external threats)
size general recommendations2
Size: General recommendations

3) Acquire entire ecosystems (can protect)

Fig. 16.1

Ex: Watershed: all water exiting

area goes to same place.

design issues shape
Design Issues: Shape
  • Regular or irregular?
  • Fragmented or unfragmented?

Fig. 16.1

design issues shape1
Design Issues: Shape
  • Minimize edge (make round)
    • Reduces edge effect
    • Protects core (maximizes distance edge to center reserve)

Fig. 9.1