Robyn Gloyd, Rebecca Jones, Dan Olsen, Amber Pool, & Mike SyczUniversity of West Florida OUT OF THE DUST: OVERCOMING HARDSHIPS
Summary This unit, “Out of the Dust: Overcoming Hardships,” will focus on the multiple ways communities work through hardships, using the experiences of the Great Depression and Oklahoma dust bowl survivors as a reference point and example. Created for fifth grade students, this unit will allow students to explore the ways communities face hardships, how they can overcome them, and examples of hardships they find within their own communities. By integrating math, social studies, science, language arts, and visual art, the students will learn about how people experience and overcome hardships. Throughout this unit, students will examine how humans overcome hardship by exploring true and fictional accounts of the Great Depression and dust bowl survivors, examining the ways humans impact their environments and vice versa, exploring the ways hardships impact creative ability and vice versa, and examining the ways in which the people in a community help one another in the midst of hardships. Our unit will begin by exploring the theme of overcoming hardships by learning about the Oklahoma dust bowl and its survivors, but this will only be the starting place for the exploration of ways people survive difficulties in their own communities.
Major concepts Language Arts • Note taking • Compare and Contrast • Using graphic organizers • Essay writing Art • Two-dimensional collage art • Three-dimensional collage art • Connection between visual art and the real world • Identifying Hobo Signs and their uses
major concepts Social Studies • Causes and effects of the Market Crash of 1929 • Great Depression: Start to finish • Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal • The Dust Bowl and Modern Migration Science • Causes and effects of erosion on the environment • Water Cycle • How ecosystems function • The scientific method • Collecting and analyzing data • Being responsible with environmental resources
major concepts Math Graph differentiation (bar, line, circle) Graph interpretation Graph analysis Graph making
Sunshine state standards Language Arts Standard: Reading Process, Reading Comprehension-The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. LA.18.104.22.168 Benchmark Description: The student will determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level text through inferring, paraphrasing, summarizing, and identifying relevant details LA.22.214.171.124 Benchmark Description: The student will identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections LA.126.96.36.199 Benchmark Description: The student will use strategies to repair comprehension of grade-appropriate text when self-monitoring indicates confusion, including but not limited to rereading, checking context clues, predicting, note-making, summarizing, using graphic and semantic organizers, questioning, and clarifying by checking other sources. LA.188.8.131.52 Benchmark Description: The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts Standard: Writing Process, Prewriting-The student will use prewriting strategies to generate ideas and formulate a plan. LA.184.108.40.206 Benchmark Description: The student will prewrite by generating ideas from multiple sources (e.g., text, brainstorming, graphic organizer, drawing, writer's notebook, group discussion, printed material) based upon teacher-directed topics and personal interests; LA.220.127.116.11 Benchmark Description: The student will prewrite by organizing ideas using strategies and tools (e.g., technology, graphic organizer, KWL chart, log). Standard: Drafting-The student will write a draft appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose. LA.18.104.22.168 Benchmark Description: The student will draft writing by using a prewriting plan to focus on the main idea with ample development of supporting details, elaborating on organized information using descriptive language, supporting details, and word choices appropriate to the selected tone and mood; LA.22.214.171.124 Benchmark Description: The student will draft writing by organizing information into a logical sequence and combining or deleting sentences to enhance clarity
Sunshine state standards Language Arts Standard: Revising-The student will revise and refine the draft for clarity and effectiveness. LA.126.96.36.199 Benchmark Description: The student will revise by creating clarity and logic by deleting extraneous or repetitious information and tightening plot or central idea through the use of sequential organization, appropriate transitional phrases, and introductory phrases and clauses that vary rhythm and sentence structure. LA.188.8.131.52 Benchmark Description: The student will revise by applying appropriate tools or strategies to evaluate and refine the draft (e.g., peer review, checklists, rubrics). Standard: Publishing-The student will write a final product for the intended audience. LA.184.108.40.206 Benchmark Description: The student will prepare writing using technology in a format appropriate to audience and purpose (e.g., manuscript, multimedia); LA.220.127.116.11 Benchmark Description: The student will share the writing with the intended audience. Standard: Communication, Listening and Speaking-The student effectively applies listening and speaking strategies. LA.18.104.22.168 Benchmark Description: The student will listen and speak to gain and share information for a variety of purposes, including personal interviews, dramatic and poetic recitations, and formal presentations; and LA.22.214.171.124 Benchmark Description: The student will make formal oral presentations for a variety of purposes and occasions, demonstrating appropriate language choices, body language, eye contact and the use of gestures, the use of supporting graphics (charts, illustrations, images, props), and available technologies.
Sunshine state standards Visual Arts Standard: Skills and Techniques-The student understands and applies media, techniques, and processes. Benchmark VA.A.1.2.1: The student uses and organizes two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, techniques, tools, and processes to produce works of art that are derived from personal experience, observation, or imagination. Benchmark VA.A.1.2.2: The student uses control in handling tools and materials in a safe and responsible manner. Benchmark VA.A.1.2.4: The student uses good craftsmanship in a variety of two-dimensional and three-dimensional media. Standard: Creation and Communication- The student creates and communicates a range of subject matter, symbols, and ideas using knowledge of structures and functions of visual arts. Benchmark VA.B.1.2.1: The student understands that subject matter used to create unique worksof art can come from personal experience, observation, imagination, and themes. Standard: Cultural and Historical Connections- The student understands the visual arts in relation to history and culture. Benchmark VA.C.1.2.2: The student understands how artists have used visual languages and symbol systems through time and across cultures. Standard: Applications to Life- The student makes connections between the visual arts, other disciplines, and the real world. Benchmark VA.E.1.2.1: The student understands the influence of artists on the quality of everyday life.
Sunshine state standards Social Studies Standard: Time, Continuity, and Change [History] The student understands selected social and cultural transformations of the 1920’s and 1930’s (for example, impact of the automobile, racial tensions, role of women). The student understands the social and economic impact of the Great Depression on American society (for example, business failures, unemployment, home foreclosures, breadlines). Standard: People, Places, and Environments [Geography] The student extends and refines use of maps, globes, charts, graphs, and other geographic tools including map keys and symbols to gather and interpret data and to draw conclusions about physical patterns (for example, in the United States). The student knows how regions in the United States are constructed according to physical criteria and human criteria. The student understands varying perceptions of regions throughout the United States. The student understands reasons certain areas of the United States are more densely populated than others. The student understands ways the physical environment supports and constrains human activities in the United States. The student understands ways human activity has affected the physical environment in various places and times in the United States.
Sunshine state standards Social Studies Standard: Production, Distribution, and Consumption [Economics] The student knows examples from United States history that demonstrate an understanding that all decisions involve opportunity costs and that making effective decisions involves considering the costs and the benefits associated with alternative choices. The student understands that scarcity of resources requires choices on many levels, from the individual to societal. The student understands the basic concept of credit. The student understands that any consumer has certain rights (for example, an individual, a household, a government). The student understands the roles that money plays in a market economy. The student understands basic services that banks and other financial institutions in the economy provide to consumers, savers, borrowers, and businesses. The student knows ways the Federal government provides goods and services through taxation and borrowing (for example, highways, military defense). Math Standard: Data Analysis and Probability Students will interpret, analyze, and compare data represented on line graphs or double bar graphs. Students will identify, interpret, or describe a graph that shows a quantity that changes over time.
Sunshine state standards Science Standard: Force and Motion Uses scientific tools (for example, stopwatch, meter stick, compass) to measure speed, distance, and direction of an object. Standard: Processes that Shape the Earth Understands how atmospheric pressure affects the water cycle. Understands how eroded materials are transported and deposited over time in new areas to form new features (for example, deltas, beaches, dunes). Knows that rocks are constantly being formed and worn away. Understands how the surface of the Earth is shaped by both slow processes (for example, weathering, erosion, deposition) and rapid, cataclysmic events (for example, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes). Extends and refines knowledge of ways people can reuse, recycle, and reduce the use of resources to improve and protect the quality of life. Standard: How Living Things Interact with Their Environment Understands how changes in the environment affect organisms (for example some organisms move in, others move out; some organisms survive and reproduce, others die).
Sunshine state standards Science Standard: The Nature of Science The student understands that although the same scientific investigation may give slightly different results when it is carried out by different persons or at different times or places, the general evidence collected from the investigation should be replicable by others. The student understands that scientists use different kinds of investigations (for example, observations of events in nature, controlled experiments) depending on the questions that they are trying to answer. The students understand the importance of accuracy in conducting measurements, and uses estimation when exact measurements are not possible. The student understands the importance of communication among scientists (for example, informing and becoming informed about scientific investigations in progress and the work of others; exposing ideas to the criticism of others). The student uses strategies to review, compare and contrast, and critique scientific investigations. The student knows an experiment must be repeated many times and yield consistent results before the results are accepted. The student uses sketches and diagrams to propose scientific solutions to problems. The student constructs models to compare objects in science. The student makes a prediction for a new investigation using data from a previous investigation. The student selects appropriate graphical representations (for example, graphs, charts, diagrams) to collect, record, and report data.
Learning goals Language Arts • To be able to assess prior knowledge about a subject, set personal learning goals, and assess learning that has been accomplished • To develop compare and contrast skills. • To develop and strengthen note taking skills • To develop and strengthen writing skills, such as using graphic organizers, pre-write, edit, and publish • Develop creative writing skills Art • To identify the key components in creating two-dimensional and three-dimensional collage art. • To apply those component skills into making a two-dimensional and three-dimensional pieces of collage art. • To be able to identify hobo signs and their uses. • To be able to depict the lifestyle of someone living during the Great Depression and display it in their art projects.
Learning goals Social Studies • To identify the events that led to the Market Crash of 1929 and the key historical events during the Great Depression through class lecture and watching the PBS documentary The Panic is On. • To understand the social repercussions of the Great Depression such as unemployment, foreclosures, breadlines, and the welfare system through watching the PBS documentary The Panic is On. • To identify how individuals and the government overcame the hardships of the Great Depression through class lecture, and watching video interviews of survivors of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. • To understand that scarce resources requires individuals and governments to make difficult decisions through class lectures. • To identify the primary cause of modern migration and the consequences migration has on the social make-up of regions through class lectures and examining the Dust Bowl migration of the 1930s.
Learning goals Math • To be able to learn about different causes and effects of erosion. • To be able to learn how to purify water with household items. • To be able to understand what caused the Dust Bowl and what were its effects on the environment. • To be able to record and organize data from the class experiments. Science • To be able to learn about different causes and effects of erosion. • To be able to learn how to purify water with household items. • To be able to understand what caused the Dust Bowl and what its effects were on the environment. • To be able to record and organize data from the class experiments.
Student learning outcomes Language Arts • When provided with the subject The Dust Bowl, students will be able to, within a fifteen minute duration, describe what they know about the subject with a partner, summarize their knowledge, and present their knowledge with the class. • Students will be able to compare and contrast hardships experienced in Out of the Dust, with those their community has faced, with 80% accuracy. • As a culminating activity, a group of students will be able to select an event from Out of the Dust and re-tell it, answering who, what, where, when, and why questions, in a newspaper article format, with 80% accuracy, and present article to classmates, teacher, and parents. • To prepare for a two page essay, students will be able to create an essay map recalling specific generous acts from the story Out of the Dust, and be able to describe the help that was given, the reason the person needed the help, and details about the person who provided the help, with 100% accuracy, based on created developed rubric. • Students will be able to write a five paragraph essay describing a generous act from the story, Out of the Dust, using supporting details and information from the story, an effective organizational pattern, and correct punctuation, grammar, and sentence structure with 80% accuracy, based on teacher created rubric. • While reading/listening to the story, Out of the Dust, students will be able to attend to the story, ask questions relevant to the story and answer comprehension questions with 80% accuracy.
Student learning outcomes Visual Arts • The student will be able to correctly identify hobo signs and their uses on a 25-question test, with 80% accuracy. • Given the materials, the student will be able to create a two-dimensional collage hobo sign that could be used in today’s world, with 80% accuracy based on class rubric. • The student will be able to cooperate with another peer to create a diorama depicting the lifestyle of Depression Era people, with 80% accuracy based on a class rubric. • The student will be able to give a presentation about their diorama and explain why they chose that specific lifestyle to depict and how the Dust Bowl affected that lifestyle, with 80% accuracy based on class rubric. • Given the materials, the student will be able to create a two-dimensional collage poster to advertise either the talent show or the president's ball from Out of the Dust, with 80% accuracy based on a class rubric. • The student will be able to give a presentation about their collage poster and answer class questions given at the beginning of the project, with 80% accuracy.
Student learning outcomes Social Studies • Students will be able to answer their own KWL assessment from the beginning of the unit, with 80% accuracy. • Students will be able to write a 3-5 page paper on the Great Depression, with 80% accuracy based on a class rubric. • Students will demonstrate understanding of the personal hardship that individuals faced during the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl by writing a series of journal entries based on their own fictional character from the era, with 80% accuracy based on a class rubric. • Students will be able to answer a five question short answer quiz on modern migration, with 80% accuracy.
Student learning outcomes Science • Student will be able to know the causes of wind erosion and answer questions related to the experiment on what causes and what are the effects of this type of erosion with 80% accuracy. • Student will be able to effectively purify water with household items provided and answer questions on how the filtration process works with 80% accuracy. • Student will be able to correctly record and organize data from their experiments with 90% accuracy. • Student will be able to complete a KWL chart on what caused the Dust Bowl and answering "want to know" questions with 75% accuracy. Math • The student will correctly create X and Y axes on line paper with 100% accuracy. • The student will correctly label X and Y axes on line paper with 100% accuracy. • The student will correctly identify line graphs, bar graphs, and/or circle graphs with 100% accuracy. • The student will correctly plot data points on line paper with 80% accuracy. • The student will correctly create data intervals on line paper with 80% accuracy.
Lesson plan overview Language Arts The Language Arts component of this ITU will explore the ways communities overcome hardships by reading the story, Out of the Dust, a fictional account of one family's struggles and triumphs and those of their community of farmers in Oklahoma during the dust bowl. Students will complete a KWL chart, examining what they already know about the dust bowl, what they want to know, and culminating in what they learned. They will compare and contrast the experiences of the characters in the story with those struggles in their own community. They will learn note taking skills as they keep a story journal to use throughout the unit. They will learn how to effectively use an essay map and will write a five paragraph essay describing a generous act from the story. As a culminating activity, the students will chose events from the story to present in a newspaper format, which will be presented at the class parent's night.
Lesson plan overview Visual Arts The visual arts component of this interdisciplinary thematic unit will focus on the students’ understanding and application of two-dimensional and three-dimensional art. Students will use a variety of media to explore the lifestyles of those living during the Great Depression. The first week, students will take one of two excerpts from the book Out of the Dust, by Karen Hess, and use them create a two-dimensional collage poster. Students will also be paired up for their diorama home project, which will depict the lifestyle of someone living during the Great Depression. The second week, students will watch a documentary called Riding the Rails about teenagers who were forced to survive on their own by traveling on trains to get from one destination to the next. After the documentary, the students will be introduced to hobo signs, a form of communication that hobos used during the Great Depression to give information and warnings to fellow travelers. The students will study hobo signs and be given a test on them. During the last week of the unit, the students will create their own hobo sign that could be useful for a traveler today. They will also bring in their completed dioramas and share them with the class. All the students’ artwork will be on display during the culminating parents night.
Lesson plan overview Social Studies The Social Studies component of this interdisciplinary unit will examine how Americans overcame hardships during the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl in 1930s America. Students will begin the unit by beginning a KWL assessment on the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. Students will then examine the economic factors leading up to the market crash of 1929 and collapse of the banking system. Afterwards, the unit will cover the social effects and hardship associated with the Great Depression including unemployment, inflation, foreclosures, breadlines, and the welfare system. The unit will also cover the Dust Bowl in the Midwest with a lesson on modern migration and its effects on the social make-up of a region including overpopulation, under population, and discrimination.Students will be given a 5 question short answer test on modern migration. Finally, the lesson will conclude with an examination of the New Deal policies and how the United States eventually pulled itself out of the Great Depression. Students will work on a personal Great Depression/ Dust Bowl migration journal and a 3-5 page paper on the Great Depression throughout the unit, and will complete their own KWL assessment at the end of the unit. Students will display their journals and paper in a portfolio on the culminating parent’s night.
Lesson plan overview Science The Science component of this interdisciplinary unit will focus on erosion and how ecosystems on earth change through natural occurrences and through human intervention. Students will learn from reading accounts of the Dust Bowl what were the chain of events that led to the catastrophe. Students will conduct experiments to learn what are the causes and effects of erosion. Students will learn about using the scientific method to investigate the question of what caused the Dust Bowl and what can people do to prevent that type of event from happening again. Math The math component of our unit will focus on reading and understanding linear graphs. Students will learn how to understand raw data from the Dust Bowl era (1934) and construct a graph using temperatures from 1934 and 2009. Students will learn how to label axes correctly, plot data points, and connect the data points on graph paper. The lesson fits into the ITU as part of a greater understanding of the impact these high temperature have on our environment and communities overall.
Culminating activities As a culminating activity, the class will be hosting a parent night where they will have the opportunity to display a project from each of the disciplines they explored as they examined the theme, Overcoming Hardships. The following projects/presentations will be shown: • A newspaper article depicting favorite scenes from the story, Out of the Dust • Collage art poster depicting scenes from the story, Out of the Dust, diorama depicting the lifestyle of someone living during the Great Depression, and modern day hobo signs • Portfolio containing personal migration journals and Great Depression papers • Science experiment
Assessments • KWL assessment on the Great Depression and the dust bowl • 5 question short answer essay test on modern migration, teacher created rubric • Circle area of the Dust Bowl on Map • Teacher created rubric for two essays • Teacher created rubric for two journals • Teacher created rubric for newspaper article • Teacher observation sheet for presentation of newspaper article • 25 question test on Hobo Signs • Riding the Rails Art Project • KWL assessment on the cultural aspect of the Dust Bowl (i.e. style of dress, how house looked, what people did for fun, etc.)
Assessments • Partner project on creating and presenting a diorama of the Dust Bowl • Collage poster project on Out of the Dust • Dust Bowl line graphing. • Daily temperature line graphing. • Precipitation line graphing. • Unemployment bar graph. Students chart unemployment statistics during 1930 (the year following market crash of 1929 and first year of Dust Bowl). • Class experiment on erosion, teacher created rubric • 20 Question test on the causes and effects of the Erosion • Class experiment on Water Filtration, teacher created rubric
Media List Books TV DVD player Lap top Printer Projector DVDs Weather almanac handouts Select websites Map of the United States On-line videos
References-Books • Barnes, R. (1987). Teaching Art to Young Children 4-9. London, UK: Unwin Hyman LTD. • Guthrie, W. (1940). Dust Bowl Ballads (CD). Buddha Recording Label. • Hesse, K. (1997). Out of the Dust: A Novel. New York, New York: Scholastic Inc. • Uys, M. and Lovell, L. (Producers and Directors). (1998). Riding the Rails. United States: WGBH Studio. • Macmillan & McGraw-Hill (2003). Our Nation. New York: Author.
References-websites • http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/pls/plclimprod/somdmain.StateSubQry?DataSet=MONTHLY&StateAbbv=OK&OutDest=FILE&StateMthd=STATION&ForceOutside=&SortOrder=COOP • http://weather.about.com/od/imagegallery/ig/Global-Warming-Images-Graphs.--5K/1934-US-Temperature-Records.htm • http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/prelim/drought/zimage.html • http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/drought/palmer-maps/?index=zndx&month%5B%5D=5&beg_year=1934&end_year=1934&submitted=Submit • http://www.teachervision.fen.com/tv/printables/orange/ss-102.pdf • http://1269.educatorpages.com/Page.aspx?p=1267 • http://www.shmoop.com/great-depression/graphing-depression-statistics-activity.html • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/03/040319072053.htm • http://www.weru.ksu.edu/vids/dust002.mpg • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es1205/es1205page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization • http://www.survivaloutdoorskills.com/purifying_water.htm • http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/EnvSci_p052.shtml • http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/quick/hawaii/Wind.html • http://www.weru.ksu.edu/
References-websites • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/water_02.html • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/dustbowl/ • http://www.weru.ksu.edu/new_weru/multimedia/dustbowl/dustbowlpics.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depressionhttp:/ • www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/depression.htm • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/rails/ • http://www.google.com/images?q=The+great+depression&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=univ&ei=6ydXTMKGMIm8sQPpjKHaAg&sa=X&oi=image_result_group&ct=title&resnum=4&ved=0CD0QsAQwAw&biw=1128&bih=515 • http://www.worldpath.net/~minstrel/hobosign.htm • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/movies/hankel_money_01.html • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/movies/hankel_money_04.html • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/movies/hankel_water_21.html • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/movies/schmitt_money_04.html • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/movies/jensen_water_02.html • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/movies/bolton_life_29.html • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/movies/thompson_water_06.html • http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/movies/evans_money_06.html