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Pathophysiology. ZOOL 3143. Dr. Diane M. Gilmore, O.D. LSE 415 680-8083 mgilmore@astate.edu Web site: www.clt.astate.edu/mgilmore. Office hours:. Monday and Tuesday 1 - 2 p.m. Wednesday Noon - 2 p.m. and 3-4 p.m. And by appointment.

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Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology

ZOOL 3143


Dr diane m gilmore o d
Dr. Diane M. Gilmore, O.D.

  • LSE 415

  • 680-8083

  • mgilmore@astate.edu

  • Web site: www.clt.astate.edu/mgilmore


Office hours
Office hours:

  • Monday and Tuesday 1 - 2 p.m.

  • Wednesday Noon - 2 p.m. and 3-4 p.m.

  • And by appointment


Pathophysiology

Lecture Text: Essentials of Pathophysiology Concepts of Altered Health States,2nd ed.,

by Carol Mattson Porth.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pub.


Cramming is a sure path to failure
Cramming is a sure path to failure !

It will blow up in your face!


Study tips
Study Tips

  • Use the study guide

  • Daily quizzes

  • Understand the material

  • Read the text

  • Study frequently for short periods

  • “Do something” with the material

  • Find a study buddy


Pathophysiology

Classroom Etiquette:

Turn off pagers and cell phones !

No tobacco use of any kind

Be considerate of others:

Take out what you bring in.

Talk to me, NOT your neighbor!

Do not ask for grades over the

phone or internet.


Academic integrity
Academic Integrity

  • Use Professional ethics

  • NO:

    • Plagiarism

    • Cheating

    • Allowing others to copy from you

  • Penalties can be severe !!


Pathophysiology


Pathophysiology

Grades: 5 exams + 1 paper

+

“pop” quizzes and possibly seminars

A = 450 - 500 points

B = 400 - 449 points

C = 350 - 399 points

D = 300 - 349 points

F = less than 300 pointsFinal exam Tuesday, Dec. 11 at 12:30p.m.


Terminology
Terminology

  • Pathology – focus on physical changes in diseased organs and tissues

  • Pathophysiology – abnormal functioning of diseased organs and how it applies to medical treatment and patient care


Pathophysiology

Disease – loss of homeostasis, or when physical or mental capacities cannot be fully utilized (interuption, cessation or disorder in the function of an organ or system).

Etiology = cause of the disease

When the etiology is unknown, the disease is said to be idiopathic.


Categories of etiology
Categories of etiology

  • Genetic disease– genes are responsible for a structural or functional defect

  • Congenital disease– genetic information is intact, but the intrauterine environment interferes with normal development

  • Acquired disease – disease is caused by factors encountered after birth (biological agents, physical forces, and chemical agents)


Pathophysiology

Clinical manifestations – indications that the person is sick

Symptoms – unobservable effects of a disease reported by the patient

Signs – observable or measurable traits

Syndrome - a characteristic combination of signs and symptoms associated with a particular disease.


Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis - sequence of events in the of development of a disease

Sequelae – lesions or impairments resulting from a disease

Acute conditions – rapid onset, develop quickly, usually of short duration

Chronic conditions – longer duration

onset may be sudden or insidious


Pathophysiology

Distribution of lesions may be:

Local – confined to one area of the body

Systemic – widely distributed throughout the body

Within an organ damage can be:

Focal if there are only one or more distinct sites of damage

Diffuse if the damage is uniformly distributed


Pathophysiology

Diagnosis – identification of the specific disease

Therapy – the treatment of the disease to either effect a cure or reduce the patient’s signs and symptoms

Prognosis – prediction of a disease’s outcome



Boundary cell membrane plasma membrane
Boundary – Cell membrane(plasma membrane)

Composed of lipid molecules in bilayer

Phospholipids have hydrophobic tail

Phospholipids have hydrophilic heads

Also contains embedded proteins

proteins are important for cell-cell

communication:

receptors for hormones

cell recognition

also important for metabolic

processes inside the cell:

channels

pumps

enzymes


Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm

Cytosol – aqueous gel-like medium

Important metabolic processes occur here

Organelles – membrane bound structures

Membranes provide compartments for

separation of chemical reactions


Nucleus dna codes for proteins
NucleusDNA codes for proteins


Rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes make proteins
Rough Endoplasmic ReticulumContains ribosomes – make proteins


Smooth er synthesizes phospholipids detoxifies
Smooth ERsynthesizes phospholipidsdetoxifies


Golgi apparatus packages protein for export
Golgi ApparatusPackages protein for export


Mitochondria the cell s power plant
MitochondriaThe cell’s power plant



Vesicles
Vesicles

“sacs” that hold molecules within a cell

lysosomes –digestive enzymes

molecules to be exported


Inclusions
Inclusions

Temporary structures

  • ribosomes

  • filaments – cytoskeleton – protein strands

  • other molecules without membranes:

  • melanin

  • lipids, etc.


Tissues
Tissues

Made up of cells with common function

Four major tissue types:

1. Epithelial

covering and lining

interacts with the body’s environment

glandular tissue


2 connective tissue
2. Connective tissue

Important to structure , support and protection

3. Nervous tissue

Made up of neurons and supporting (glial) cells

receives info from outside (or inside) the body

processes information

acts on the information through muscles, glands,

etc.


Muscle
Muscle

  • Important to movement

  • Three types

    • Skeletal

    • Smooth

    • Cardiac


Cells change to adapt to their environment
Cells change to adapt to their environment

  • Atrophy = shrinkage = decrease in cell size.

  • Due to :

    • decreased use

    • decreased blood supply

    • decreased nutrition

    • Of tissues or organs may be due to

    • cell shrinkage or due to cell death.


Pathophysiology

Hypertrophy = increase in cell size

We'll see this in heart, kidney (and others) w/ pathology

NOT due to increased cell volume or fluid

Rather, due to increased protein synthesis within the cell, or decreased protein breakdown

Result is increased protein in organelles

Hyperplasia = increase in cell number

Due to increased cell division

Uterus and breast tissue

Parathyroid gland in kidney failure

Liver (compensatory hyperplasia)


Pathophysiology


Pathophysiology

  • Considered a reversible change

  • Neoplasia = associated with a malignant tumor


  • Intracellular accumulations
    Intracellular accumulations shape or organization

    • Buildup of substances the cell can’t use or dispose of.

      • Normal body substances

      • Abnormal products from inside the body (inborn errors of metabolism)

      • Substances from outside the body (transient or permanent)


    Cellular injury cell unable to maintain homeostasis
    Cellular injury – cell unable to maintain homeostasis shape or organization

    • Causes of cell injury:

    • Deficiency – lack of a substance necessary to the cell

    • Intoxication or poisoning – presence of a toxin or substance that interferes with cell functioning

    • Trauma – physical injury and loss of cell’s structural integrity


    Pathophysiology

    Deficiencies: shape or organization

    Deficiency in oxygen most important


    Pathophysiology

    Hypoxia = deficiency in oxygen at cell shape or organization

    Due to :

    Decreased oxygen in air

    Decreased hemoglobin or

    decreased oxygen transported to cells

    Diseases of the respiratory and/or

    cardiovascular system


    Pathophysiology

    Important to cell because of shape or organization

    oxidative phosphorylation, which results

    in the production of ATP

    Oxidative: need oxygen to produce ATP

    ATP: needed by cell for metabolism, cell life


    Pathophysiology

    • Cellular response to hypoxia shape or organization

    • Decreased mitochondrial reactions  decreased ATP produced 

    • decreased energy

    • Ion pumps cease, so can't regulate ions

    • into/out of cell (ATP needed for this)

    • Can't pump Na+ and water out of cell, so get cell swelling  organelle swelling 

      • cell death


    Pathophysiology

    Ischemia shape or organization is inadequate blood supply to a cell or tissue.

    Ischemia can cause hypoxia.


    Pathophysiology

    Intoxication (or introduction of toxins into the cell) shape or organization

    Effect on cell depends on toxin and on cell

    Some examples:

    Lead -- injures nervous system

    CO -- deprives body of oxygen

    Ethanol -- effects central nervous system


    Pathophysiology


    Pathophysiology

    Free radicals shape or organization :

    uncharged atom or group of atoms with an

    unpaired electron

    Formed by radiation, redox reactions, chemicals

    Atom is unstable

    needs to gain or lose an electron

    can alter chemical bonds in proteins,

    lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids

    can cause chain reaction in cell


    Apoptosis
    Apoptosis shape or organization

    • “fallen apart”

    • Regulated cell death

    • During development

    • Worn out cells

    • Diseased cells (tumor suppressor p53 gene, natural killer or Tc cells)


    Necrosis
    Necrosis shape or organization

    • Messy cell death

    • Initiates inflammation

    • Gangrene – large mass of tissue undergoes necrosis


    Pathophysiology

    • Infections agents shape or organization

    • Microorganisms can invade and harm cells

    • Cell injury can have effects on the entire body

      • Examples: fever, pain, increased heart rate


    Cell aging
    Cell aging shape or organization

    • Programmed change theories

    • Error theories

    • Telomerase