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Background Information for “Toxicity Testing with California Blackworms and Alcohol” Created by Stefani D. Hines with modifications by Debbie Gevirtzman, SWEHSC, University of Arizona. INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY. What is it? How is it used?. Toxicology .

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introduction to toxicology
Background Information for “Toxicity Testing with California Blackworms and Alcohol”

Created by Stefani D. Hines with modifications by Debbie Gevirtzman,

SWEHSC, University of Arizona

INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY
toxicology
What is it?

How is it used?

Toxicology
toxicology4
Biology

Chemistry

Physiology

Physics

Statistics

Immunology

Ecology

Forensic Medicine

Clinical Treatments

Drug Development

Public Health

Industrial Hygiene

Veterinary Science

Agriculture

Environmental Science

Toxicology
routes of entry
Ingestion – chemicals can enter the body by eating or drinking

Inhalation – chemicals can be breathed into the lungs

Absorption - chemicals can enter the body by moving through the skin

Routes of Entry
slide10
Dose is the amount of a chemical that gets inside of your body.

Measured in mg of chemical/kg or lb of weight

Dose
slide12

Who took the largest dose of Tylenol?

Weight: 125 lb 135 lb 20 lb 5 lb

Tylenol: 300 mg 600 mg 100 mg 50 mg

slide13

Calculating Dose:

50 mg 5 lb = 10 mg/lb

300 mg 125 lb = 2.4 mg/lb

the dose makes the poison
“What is it that is not a poison? All things are poisons and nothing is without poison. It is the dose only that makes a thing not a poison.”

Paracelsus, 1493-1541

The Dose Makes The Poison
slide15

Most hazardous substances exhibit a “dose-response” relationship. What does this mean?

A. The harm caused by the hazard increases as the amount of hazard entering the body (dose) increases.

B. It does not matter how big a dose you receive, you will always have the same amount of harm/sickness.

C. Exposure to the hazard always results in harm.

slide16

Dose-Response Curve for Alcohol

Death

Labored breathing

Unconscious

Deep sleep

Response

Sleep

Giddy

No effect

No effect

Dose

slide17

Dose-Response Curve for Vitamin D

Toxic

Healthy

Response

Unhealthy

Dose

exposure18
Exposure Frequency– how often

Exposure Duration– how long

Exposure Concentration– how much

Exposure
toxicity
Acute Toxicity– a high toxicant dose over a short period of time

Chronic Toxicity– a small dose of a toxicant over a long period of time

Toxicity
factors affecting toxicity
Extrinsic Factors– occur outside the body

Intrinsic Factors– occur within an individual organism

Factors Affecting Toxicity
intrinsic factors
Age

Genetic Difference

Body Size

Intrinsic Factors
control24
Food

Exposure to Known Hazards in Daily Lifestyle

Cigarettes

Alcohol

Preventable Poisonings

Control
factors contributing to cancer risk in the u s
Diet ~35%

Tobacco ~30%

Occupational exposures & pollution ~5%

Infection (viruses) ~10%

Other ~20%

Genetic susceptibility

Sun/radiation

Alcohol

Factors Contributing to Cancer Risk in the U.S.