Final Review. C483 Spring 2013. Replication. Transcription. Nonspecific binding. One-dimensional promoter search. Holoenzyme and promoter form closed complex. Open complex allows initiation. Sigma subunit released; promoter is cleared and elongation starts. Eukaryotic Transcription.
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Final Review C483 Spring 2013
Nonspecific binding One-dimensional promoter search Holoenzyme and promoter form closed complex Open complex allows initiation Sigma subunit released; promoter is cleared and elongation starts
Eukaryotic Transcription • Multiple RNA Polymerases—compartmentalization • General Transcription Factors • Role of Chromatin • mRNA processing
Operon • Three genes for three proteins controlled by single promoter region (operon) B-galactosidase (hydrolyse lactose) Lactose permease Thiogalactoside transacetylase Lac repressor (not part of operon)
Overview • Genetic Code • tRNA structure • Aminoacyl-tRNAsynthetase • Ribosome structure • Next lecture: initiation, elongation, termination
Question Distribution • Comprehensive (chapters 1-19) • Approximately 2-3 questions/chapter • Study questions from lectures • Major in the majors • Be able to apply major principles • Chapters 20-22 • Approximately 5-6 questions per chapter
Chapter Overviews • Compartmentalization • IMF, acid/base, pH and buffers • Amino acids and primary structure • Protein structure and Hemoglobin • Enzyme kinetics, Inhibitors, allosteric • Catalytic mechanisms, serine protease
7. Function of coenzymes 8. Structure of carbohydrates 9. Membranes and signal transduction • Free energy, standard free energy, ATP • Glycolysis chemistry, energy, purpose, regulation • Gluconeogenesis, PPP, glycogen metabolism chemistry, energy, purpose, regulation • Citric acid cycle chemistry, energy, purpose, regulation
Electron transport, ATP synthase, P/O ratio • purpose of light reactions, dark reactions • energetics of FA synthesis and degradation • nitrogen processing, catabolism of AA • medical applications of nucleotide metabolism • nucleic acid structure on atomic level
Major Principles • Chemical Structure • Structure-Function relationship • Thermodynamics of reactions • Kinetics (catalysis) of reactions • Cofactors and high energy bonds • Purpose/outcomes of process • Regulation of pathway related to purpose
Major Enzymes • You should be able to figure out what many enzymes do by their names IF you know your basic biochemistry • Substrate structures • Dehydrogenase, carboxylase, kinase, protease, phosphorylase, phosphatase
Key Metabolites • Know structures; associate with pathway • Glucose, glucose-6-P, DHAP, PEP, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, ribulose, UDP-glucose, glycogen, oxaloacetate, a-ketoglutarate • Amino acids, nucleotides