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Order of Classification

Order of Classification

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Order of Classification

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  1. Order of Classification • Each kingdom (界) is split into smaller groups called phyla(門) (or called division in plants). Each phylum is further split into class (綱), order(目), family(科), genus (屬) and species (種) and so on. • Such gradual division are listed below: Kingdom Phylum or Division Class Order Family Genus Species

  2. Diversity of Organisms • Species (物種/種) - a group of similar organisms that can interbreed with one another (互相交配) to produce fertile offsprings (具生殖力的後代).

  3. The Binomial system of nomenclature (雙名法) Scientific name consists of two parts: Genus (屬) name + species (種) name e.g. Homosapiens or Homo sapiens Zeamays or Zea mays

  4. Five kingdoms (界) • Kingdom Prokaryotae (原核生物界) • Kingdom Protoctista (原生生物界) • Kingdom Fungi (真菌界) • Kingdom Plantae (植物界) • Kingdom animalia (動物界) • Eukaryotae • (真核生物)

  5. Phylogenetic relationships(演化關係) • phylogeny (種系發生) • common ancestor  different group of organisms • (共同祖先) (不同組別的生物)

  6. Kingdom Prokaryotae (原核生物界)

  7. Rod shaped bacterium (Bacillus)e.g. E. coli (大腸杆菌) • Spherical (球), rod-shaped (桿), helical • (螺旋) • covered by slime layer / capsule (莢膜) • Cell wall is made of protein (蛋白質) and carbohydrate (碳水化合物) - peptidoglycan) (聚糖) • Circular (環形) DNA • Ribosome (核糖體) – for protein synthesis (用作合成蛋白質)

  8. Rod shaped bacterium (Bacillus)e.g. E. coli (大腸杆菌) • Mesosome (間體) – for r______ to provide • energy • Flagellum (鞭毛) – for locomotion 移動

  9. Eukaryotae (真核生物) Protoctista (原生生物界) Fungi (真菌界) Plantae (植物界) Animalia (動物界)

  10. Prokaryotae VS Eukaryotae

  11. Kingdom Protoctista (原生生物界) • Algae (藻)

  12. Algae

  13. Algae • Eukaryotic (真核) • Body is thallus (葉狀體) , not differentiated into roots, stems, leaves, • No vascular tissues (維管組織). • All contain chlorophyll and other pigments ((色素) for photosynthesis.(autotrophic) (自養營養) • Most of them are green, while some are red or brown. • Unicellular (單細胞) filamentous (絲狀) colonial • (群體) thalloid (葉狀體) • Mainly live in water (aquatic). (水中生長)

  14. Spirogyra – a green alga Unbranced filamentous (絲狀) Found in fresh water habitat (水生境) (e.g. pond 池塘, stream 溪澗) Spirally coiled chloroplasts (螺旋狀葉 綠體) Slimy (黏滑)(due to the presence of mucliage 黏液)

  15. Fucus – a brown alga (褐藻) Large marine brown alga found in intertidal zone (潮間帶) and on a rocky shore (岩岸) Contain brown pigment (fucoxanthin, 岩藻黃素) Thallus (葉狀體) differentiated into holdfast (固着器), stipe (柄) and fronds (葉狀體/藻體) Air bladders (氣囊) – for buoyancy (浮在水面)

  16. Red tide – dinoflagellates • www.hkredtide.org

  17. Protozoa (原生生物) Unicelluar, microscopic (animal) No chlorophyll  __________ No tissues or organs Free-living, some are parasitic (寄生) e.g Amoeba Paramecium ( 草履蟲) Plasmodium (瘧原蟲)

  18. Kingdom Fungi (真菌界) • Fungi • Eukaryotic • Do not have roots, stems or leaves. • No chlorophyll present  heterotrophic • saprophytic (腐生), parasitic (寄生), mutualistic (互利共生) • hyphae (菌絲)  mycelium (菌絲體) • store food as glycogen (糖原) • reproduce by spore (孢子)

  19. Mushroom (菇) • Fungi

  20. Economic important of fungi • Decomposition of organic material in sewage and soil  D_______ (分解污水及泥土內的有機物 2. Production of antibiotics (抗生素) penicillin (青黴素) aspirin (阿士匹靈) 3. Production of alcohol (酒精) 4. Production of food 5. Mushroom are edible (可供食用) 6. For experimental use

  21. Harmful fungi • Saprophytic fungi cause decomposition of stored food (food spoilage 食物腐爛) and natural materials (天然物質) 2. Parasitic fungi cause diseases (疾病) in plants and animals.  economic loss (經濟損失)

  22. Xeromorphic features (旱生結構) • Needle-shaped leaves – reduce surface area to volume ratio • Sunkened stomata (內陷氣孔) – trap water vapour • Thicker hypodermis (下皮) and cuticle (角質層) – reduce water loss

  23. Kingdom plantae (angiosperms / flowering plants) • Green plants with roots, stems and leaves. • Have well-developed vascular tissues for transporting various substances. • Produce flowers for sexual reproduction (有性生殖) and develop into fruits (果實), with the seeds enclosed inside after fertilization. • Divided into two groups: Monocotyledonous plant (單子葉植物) and dicotyledonous plants (雙子葉植物) • Monocot are herbaceous plants (草本植物); Dicot are herbaceous or woody (木本的)

  24. Kingdom animalia (動物界) • Cnidarians/coelenterates (刺胞動物) • Annelids (環節動物) • Molluscs (軟體動物) • Arthropods (節肢動物) • Echinoderms (棘皮動物) • Vertebrates (脊椎動物) (Fishes 魚類, Amphibians 兩棲動物, Reptiles 爬行動物, Birds 鳥, Mammals 哺乳動物)

  25. Cnidarians (刺胞動物) • Example: obelia, hydra (水螅), jellyfish(水母), coral (珊瑚) and sea anemone (海葵) • Multicelluar, hollow-bodies, two layers of cells (diploblastic 雙胚層的) • Radially symmetry (輻射對稱)– catch perys (獵物) defend (防衛) at all sides • Tentacles (觸手) for catching preys ( with sting cells 剌細胞 called nematocyst剌絲囊) • Two alternate forms: polyp (螅型體) or medusa (水母體)

  26. Annelids (環節動物) • Bilaterally symmetrical (兩側對稱) • Body composed of 3 layers of cells (triploblastic) (三胚層) • Ring-like segments (環節) • Examples: earthworm (蚯蚓), leech(水蛭/螞蟥) and bristleworm (沙蟲) • May have chaetae (剛毛) – for burrowing • Supported by hydrostatic skeleton

  27. Molluscs (軟體動物) • Soft-bodied, unsegmented body • Body consisted of anterior head, ventral foot and a dorsal visceral mass (內臟團). • Body is surrounded by mantle (套膜) sheltered in one or more calcareous shells (鈣質殼). • Shell forms exoskeleton (外骨骼) for protection • Filter feeders (濾食性動物)

  28. Molluscs (軟體動物) • Examples: Chitons (石), limpets (帽貝) :dorsi-ventrally flattened body (背腹扁平) and broad flat muscular foot  attached firmly onto the substratum Periwinkles (濱螺) – sheltered in the crevices of rockes (石隙) snails (蝸牛)– protected by withdraw into shell squids (魷魚) and octopuses – tentacles with suckers for swimming and grabbing food. Protected by changing colour of the body and ejecting ink. Mussels and osyters (Bivalves)- with two shells Mussels have bysuss (足絲) for attachment to the substratum

  29. Arthropods(節肢動物) • Segmented body with jointed appendages (關節附肢) • Bilaterally symmetrical • Crustaceans e.g. lobsters, shrimps, crabs and barnacles (藤壺) • Others: centipedes (百足蟲) and millipedes (千足蟲/馬陸), spider (蜘蛛), scorpions(蠍子), insects e.g. bees, grasshopper (草蜢) • Hardened exoskeleton composed of chitin (幾丁質)  moulting (蛻皮)(for growth) • Body of an insects are divided in head (頭), thorax(胸) and abdomen (腹)

  30. Arthropods(節肢動物) • Exoskeleton for protection, muscle attachment (肌肉依附) and resisting dehydration (脫水) • Some with wings for flying • Breathed by gills (鰓)/tracheal system (氣管系統) • Jointed appendages modified to many structures e.g. antennae (觸角) for sensation, mouthparts (口器) for defence and feeding, walking and swimming legs for locomotion

  31. Echinoderms (棘皮動物) • Solely marine invertebrates • Bottom dwellers, shorelines and shallow seas • Examples: starfish(海星), sea urchins (海膽), sea cucumbers (海蔘) • Endoskeletons (內骨胳) with spines (棘) –protection (保護) • Radially symmetrial (輻射對稱) • Water vascular systems (水管系統) • Moved by tube feet (管足) • Pincer-like pedicellariae (鋏棘) around the spine ( to keep the body free of debris, to grip and to capture food)

  32. Chordata (脊索動物門) • Have the following structures at some stages of development: 1. A notochord (脊索) as the first supporting structure 2. A single, dorsal and hollow nerve cord (背神經管) 3. Paired gill slits (鰓裂) of the embryonic pharynx (咽)

  33. Fishes (魚類) • Aquatic • Fins(鰭) and tail (尾) for swimming, • Gills (鰓) for breathing • Presence of slimy scales (濕潤鱗片) • Cold-blooded / poikilothermic (變溫動物) • Streamlined(流線形) body-reduce water resistance (水阻) • 2 sub-groups : cartilaginous fishes (軟骨魚)(shark 鯊魚) bony fishes (硬骨魚) (salmon, seahorse海馬)

  34. Amphibians (兩棲類) • E.g. frogs (蛙), toads, newts (蠑螈) • Wet naked skin (皮膚光滑) (with mucin gland 黏液腺) • Gaseous exchange takes place through wet skin, lining of buccal cavity (口腔) and lungs • Cold-blood / piokilothermic (變溫動物) • Hibernate (冬眠) in cold weather

  35. Reptiles (爬行類) • E.g. turtles (龜), lizards (蜥蝪), snakes (蛇) and crocodiles (鱷魚) • Covered with dry horny scales (乾燥角質鱗片) for protection • Breathed by lungs (肺) • Eggs are covered by shell (殼) • Poikilothermic (變溫動物)

  36. Birds (鳥類) • Body covered by feathers (羽毛) • Most of them can fly, forelimbs (前肢) modified as wings , hindlimbs (後肢) for running or swimming • Have beak (喙) • Warm-blooded / Homoiothermic (恆溫動物) • Adaptations for flying: 1.Streamlined body (流線形) 2.High metabolic rate (高代謝率) 3.Bones are hollow (中空)  reduce in weight

  37. Mammals (哺乳動物) • Presence of mammary glands (乳腺) and hair or fur • E.g. whale (鯨), dolphin (海豚), bat (蝙蝠), tiger (虎) • Possess sweat glands (汗腺) • Parental care (親代養育)

  38. Dichotomous key 二叉式檢索表 • The simplest way to identifying organism is to construct a dichotomous key. • Such keys consist of a lot of structural features about the specimen to be identified. • There are two alternatives for each features, and each of these two alternatives will lead to other features until the desired group of the specimen is reached.

  39. Example of the use of dichotomous key Dichotomous key

  40. Dichotomous key • the dichotomous key can also be expressed in a diagrammatic form

  41. Nomenclature of organism • Each kind of living organism has a specific scientification name which composed of two parts. • Scientist use binomial system for naming the organisms. • This scientific name is different from the common name. • The first part of the scientific name is the name of the genus it belongs to and is known as the generic name.

  42. Plant Kingdom • Almost all plants contain the green pigment chlorophyll which they use for photosynthesis. • The plant kingdom is divided into two major groups: the non-flowering plants and the flowering plants • Non-flowering plants do not produce flowers. • Non-flowering plants are subdivided into algae, fungi, mosses, ferns and gymnosperms

  43. Plant Kingdom • diagram of plant kingdom

  44. Animal Kingdom • The invertebrates (無脊椎動物) are the animals that do not posses a backbone or vertebral column (脊柱). • The vertebrates (脊椎動物) are the animals that posses a backbone, or vertebral column. • They are usually larger than the invertebrates and have a more complex body organization and structure. • Vertebrates include mainly five classes: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals.

  45. Animal Kingdom • Diagram of animal kingdom

  46. Animal Kingdom (vertebrate) • Fish • Live in water, have a moist skin covered with scales. • Use gills for breathing. • Have fins for swimming and maintaining balance. • Cold-blooded (poikilothermic), their body temperatures changes with that of the surrounding.