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Reading for meaning in elementary School

Reading for meaning in elementary School

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Reading for meaning in elementary School

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  1. Reading for meaning in elementary School

  2. Gates of opportunity: Foreign Languages Science English Math Social Studies

  3. Cycles of reading growth

  4. Cycles of Reading Failure

  5. Research on struggling readers shows over and over and over again… • TIME matters • PRACTICE matters • “HIGH-SUCCESS” reading experiences matter • There has to be a time each day that students can read something they CAN read and WANT to read. • Independent reading on a student’s independent level allows reading to become a self-extending process, and a cycle of growth.

  6. Because exposure matters, time matters • more effective teachers routinely had children reading for forty to forty-five minutes of each hour allocated to reading instruction. • In less effective teachers’ classrooms, the time allocated was the same but these teachers often spent fifteen to twenty minutes preparing children to read, and twenty to twenty-five minutes after reading had the children engaged in a variety of follow-up activities. • Thus, in the less effective classrooms, the children typically read for only fifteen to twenty minutes of each hour of time allocated to reading lessons and in some classrooms children read even less!  Allington & Johnston Exemplary 4th grade studies (2001)

  7. Reading isn’t rocket science. Practice matters.*

  8. What do the squiggles “say”?

  9. Phonics and the Alphabetic principle 26, 42 • Symbols represent sounds…but not in a 1:1 correspondence • Cherry, Tough, The, shriek

  10. Word Study from pre-K-graduate school… phenomenology ph-enomenolog-y phen-o-men-ology phenomen-ology

  11. Comprehension is a meaning-making, message-getting process Reading is an interaction

  12. A tale of three coaches…

  13. Comprehension is a meaning-making, message-getting process Discussed so far Coming next

  14. The activity-“What do the squiggles mean?” • What do you do to make meaning out of a difficult passage? • Watch yourself as a reader • How • Ask yourself – what do I know? How do I know it? What am I doing to fix what I don’t know? • Why • cognitive apprenticeship • Model complex invisible skills

  15. How do I know what I know? What am I doing to understand? “Batsmen & Bowlers” The Batsmen were merciless against the Bowlers. The Bowlers placed their men in slips and covers. But to no avail. The Batsmen hit one four after another along with an occasional six. Not once did their balls hit their stumps or get caught.

  16. Reading is thinking… • Predict • Connect • Infer • Visualize • Question • Summarize • We all do this all the time, but need to be reminded/guided to do it (“think”) while we read.

  17. Meta-cognitive Strategies: making the invisible Visible • If you asked the average proficient reader what she does when reading, she might simply say, “I read.” But upon further investigation she would find that she unconsciously processes and problem-solves as she reads, almost like a reflection. We teach our brains to adjust to the different demands of various types of texts, which helps us read an income tax form just as successfully as we read a novel. We may not enjoy both text equally, but we can read each effectively and strategically.” -From The Right To Literacy in Secondary Schools

  18. What does reading comprehension instruction look like? • Reading and English classes nation-wide are often instruction-free in an “ASSIGN-ASSESS” cycle. When students do not understand what they read we often say… “read it again” “think about it” “try again” “sound it out”

  19. A scientific view of reading comprehension as a meaning-making process We ASSIGN and ASSESS without teaching because reading comprehension is: • Complex • Invisible • Obvious to us as expert readers

  20. How do we teach strategies? MODEL – PROMPT - GUIDE • Gradual release of responsibility= I do, We do, You do. Watch me! Help me Show me

  21. Using your sample text (“The amazing bone”) • Working with those around you, read the sample passage and note which strategy you gravitate towards. • Discuss at your tables how you might “think aloud” about your use of this strategy for that question • NOTE: any strategy could be used with any question, but some are more likely to be helpful than others

  22. Making the invisible visible…practice thinking aloud. • Use the sample passage and notice what you do to make sense of it • Use the strategy sentence starters to help you identify the strategy you feel yourself using, • Jot down what you would say to think-aloud. Tell students the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of your thought process. When I read this I’m going to _(strategy)__ by __________ because that helps me _______.

  23. The amazing bone • I notice I decide the first two paragraphs are setting up her mood. I know that because I must have been making inferences about how the character was feeling all along. • I’ll say: When I read this I’m going to make inferences by using what I already know to make guesses about how characters are feeling because that helps me use what I know to understand the story.

  24. My think-aloud • It was a brilliant day, and instead of going straight home from school, Pearl dawdled. I know when people dawdle they’re wasting time, based on that I guess she doesn’t want to get where she’s going. She watched the grownups in town at their grownup work, things she might someday be doing. This makes me think she’s daydreaming. I wonder why. She saw the street cleaners sweeping the streets and she looked in at the bakers taking hot loaves of pumpernickel out of the oven and powdering crullers with sugar dust. I know its exciting and comforting to watch hot baked good coming out of the oven, so I’m thinking she’s slowing down and daydreaming because she’s happy or content, not dreading wherever she’s going.

  25. Explaining strategies in action • Turn to a neighbor and explain what strategy you chose and how it helps you make the text make sense. • Jot down what you might say to make your thoughts visible in a think aloud.

  26. RAND reading study group model of reading comprehension

  27. Building MOTIVATION

  28. Motivation to read The expectancy theory of motivation: I can x I want = motivation (I will) I can = confidence in knowledge and skills I want= interest, desire incentive 42% of high school English teachers in Greene County that responded to a survey say most of their students do not like to read.

  29. Motivation requires • High-success experiences with texts • Confidence • Ability • 5-finger rule – struggling readers may not self-monitor • CHOICE • In almost every theory of motivation, choice automatically builds engagement. • Explicit purposes for reading • Supports comprehension • Answers: “Why this text?” “Why me?” “Why right now?” • Provides a goal and directs thinking

  30. Setting a purpose for Reading • Read this: (because I said so) The two boys ran until they came to the driveway. “See, I told you today was good for skipping school,” said Mark. “Mom is never home on Thursday,” he added. Tall hedges hid the house from the road so the pair strolled across the finely landscaped yard. “1 never knew your place was so big,” said Pete. “Yeah, but it’s nicer now than it used to be since Dad had the new stone siding put on and added the fireplace.” There were front and back doors and a side door, which led to the garage, which was empty except for three parked 10-speed bikes. They went in the side door, Mark explaining that it was always open in case his younger sisters got home earlier than their mother.

  31. Setting a purpose for Reading • Read this: as if you are a real estate agent about to sell the house The two boys ran until they came to the driveway. “See, I told you today was good for skipping school,” said Mark. “Mom is never home on Thursday,” he added. Tall hedges hid the house from the road so the pair strolled across the finely landscaped yard. “1 never knew your place was so big,” said Pete. “Yeah, but it’s nicer now than it used to be since Dad had the new stone siding put on and added the fireplace.” There were front and back doors and a side door, which led to the garage, which was empty except for three parked 10-speed bikes. They went in the side door, Mark explaining that it was always open in case his younger sisters got home earlier than their mother.

  32. Setting a purpose for Reading • Read this: as if you are a robber planning to rob the house The two boys ran until they came to the driveway. “See, I told you today was good for skipping school,” said Mark. “Mom is never home on Thursday,” he added. Tall hedges hid the house from the road so the pair strolled across the finely landscaped yard. “1 never knew your place was so big,” said Pete. “Yeah, but it’s nicer now than it used to be since Dad had the new stone siding put on and added the fireplace.” There were front and back doors and a side door, which led to the garage, which was empty except for three parked 10-speed bikes. They went in the side door, Mark explaining that it was always open in case his younger sisters got home earlier than their mother.

  33. Setting a purpose provides • A reason (builds a sense of “I want to…”) for motivation • A focus • A directed, reading, thinking activity • What to pay attention to • What not to worry about • Why you should be interested • What’s not important • A reason to think as you go helps you notice when you aren’t making meaning • You will notice when meaning breaks down if you have a goal of understanding something

  34. Checklist for classrooms that support reading for meaning in elementary schools • Students have access to texts they can read and want to read every day • Students have time to read on their own everyday • Students have clear explanations of the code system of written English with practice • Teachers model the thought-process it takes to make meaning from a text • Students have specific purposes for reading

  35. Thank you! This powerpoint is posted online: https://sites.google.com/site/greenecountyliteracy/ Further questions or comments: Rachael Gabriel rgabriel@utk.edu