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Reading Instruction in the Elementary School. Danna Bergantine. Contents. Introduction Philosophies, theorists, and approaches to reading instruction My philosophy of reading instruction The NCLB five main components and accompanying strategies Reading in the classroom: Text talk model

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Presentation Transcript
  • Introduction
  • Philosophies, theorists, and approaches to reading instruction
  • My philosophy of reading instruction
  • The NCLB five main components and accompanying strategies
  • Reading in the classroom:
    • Text talk model
    • Content area literacy
    • Expository reading
    • Graphic organizers
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy / Skyscraper model
  • Assessment methods
  • Reading interventions
  • Conclusion

The goal of this PowerPoint slideshow is to demonstrate my knowledge, both theoretical and practical, of reading instruction at the elementary school level (K-6.)

I will address the philosophies, approaches, and major components of reading instruction, different types of reading that happen in the classroom, and accompanying teaching methods in reading instruction.

philosophies of reading instruction
Philosophies of reading instruction

Top down vs. bottom up

One of the major debates in reading education is

whether instruction should top down (building

meaning first) or bottom up (phonics and phonemic


Advocates of top down instruction stress beginning

instruction with whole words, sentences, and stories.

The meaning of sentences is emphasized.

Advocates of bottom up instruction stress building knowledge

of phonemes and letter-sound relationships before anything

else. Sounds are blended into words, sets of words becomes

sentences, and so on.

philosophies of reading instruction1
Philosophies of reading instruction

Direct Instruction

  • Teaching skills
  • Teacher models a skill and provides opportunity for practice with the skill
  • Explanation of when and where to use skills

Explicit Instruction

  • Emphasis on strategies
  • Students are responsible for using strategies
  • Goal is for students to use strategies independently
philosophies of reading instruction2
Philosophies of reading instruction

Cognitive Apprenticeship

  • Teacher scaffolds student’s learning
  • Emphasis is on cognitive process more than skills
  • Students take responsibility for comprehension strategies learned from the teacher’s modeling

Whole Language

  • Reading and writing experiences are authentic
  • Child-centered, children take responsibility
  • Uses whole texts
major theorists
Major theorists

Brain Cambourne

Advocates for Natural Language Learning. Children learn language naturally when these conditions are present and they should be present in the classroom.

major theorists1
Major theorists

Louise Rosenblatt

Transactional theory: What the reader brings to the text is just as important as what the author brings.

Marie Clay

  • Studied the stages of children’s language development, the connections between reading and writing, and developed Reading Recovery.

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major theorists2
Major theorists

Frank Smith

The “Literacy Club”: Literacy is

presented as meaningful, authentic,

and enjoyable.

M. A. K. Halliday

Children learn language, learn about language, and learn through language.

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six major approaches to reading instruction
Six major approaches to reading instruction
  • Phonics
  • Sight Based
  • Integrated Anthology
  • Language Experience
  • Literature Based
  • Balanced Approach
phonics approach
Phonics approach

The Phonics approach strives to teach children decoding skills and strategies so that they can decipher words. Phonological awareness and the alphabet are key components. Instruction can be synthetic (teaching sounds then words) or analytic (teaching words than sounds.)

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sight based approach
Sight Based approach

The Sight Based approach is a top-down approach that teaches children vocabulary so that they will be able to recognize a large numbers of words by sight. It is used by educators who believe there is too much inconsistency in sound-symbol relationships in English to rely on decoding.

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integrated anthology approach
Integrated Anthology approach

The Integrated Anthology

approach uses a carefully

crafted set of texts from

various genres and very

specific teacher directions

on how to present lessons

on the texts. Workbooks

with related exercises

usually accompany an

Integrated Anthology.

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language experience approach
Language Experience approach

In the Language Experience

approach, children create

narratives that are real and

meaningful to them to learn

about language. The teacher’s job

is to record and preserve the

child’s language expression.

Connection between reading and

writing, as well as between life

experiences are made.

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literature based approach
Literature Based approach

The Literature Based approach emphasizes using genuine

literature to introduce children to the world of reading.

It assumes that children will be most interested in and

learn best from authentic experiences with literature.

The Caldecott Medal

The Newbery Medal

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balanced approach
Balanced approach

The Balanced approach rejects

the idea that one form of

reading instruction fits all. It

calls on the teacher to choose

which methods are most

appropriate for his or her class

at the present time. This

approach also emphasizes

read alouds, shared reading, guided

reading and independent reading.

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my philosophy of reading instruction
My philosophy of reading instruction

Please click on the icon to hear both an explanation of my philosophy of reading instruction and the approach to reading instruction that I favor most:

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the five major components of reading instruction
The five major components of reading instruction

As highlighted by the No Child Left Behind legislation,

the five major components of reading instruction are:


Phonics teaches students how to decode and

decipher words. The students recognize patterns

and shapes across words and sentences. They

learn about spelling rules and letter-sound


Phonics strategies.doc

phonemic awareness
Phonemic Awareness

The goal of phonemic awareness is for children to

gain auditory discrimination of letter sounds, or

phonemes. Other areas of emphasis include

syllabification, initial and final sounds, vowels,

consonants, and rhyming.

Phonemic Awareness strategies.doc


Vocabulary knowledge is one of the major factors

that increases successful comprehension. The less

time students have to spend figuring out new

words, the more fluently the can read, and read

about more complex and rich topics.

Vocabulary strategies.doc

text comprehension
Text comprehension

Text comprehension is often seen as the ultimate

goal of reading. We read either to gain knowledge

or to have fun, but in both cases the goal is to

have a meaningful experience. As students

become better readers they will comprehend more

and can increasingly build skills and knowledge,

read more, and learn more.

Text Comprehension strategies.doc


In the area of fluency, the goal is to read quickly

and efficiently. Reading one word at a time is not

considered fluent reading, even if each individual

word is correctly spoken, because unless the words

are strung into a meaningful idea, they are

nothing more than random words.

Fluency strategies.doc

reading in the classroom
Reading in the classroom

Expository reading

Text talk model

Content area literacy

  • Bloom’s
  • Taxonomy /
  • Skyscraper
  • model



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text talk model
Text Talk model

This method encourages teachers to take an

alternative approach to presenting books in the

classroom. According to this model, teachers

should chose literature with challenging content,

delay picture walks, choose two to four key

vocabulary words, and use open ended questions

and uptake to direct grand conversations about


content area literacy
Content area literacy

Content area literacy refers to learning content, or

subject matter through language. Especially as

students move on through the higher grades, they

learn more and more content by reading about

relevant subjects. It is critical that students are

good enough readers to be able to truly learn

from content presented in text form.

expository text
Expository text

Expository, or non-fiction,

text is one of the primary

ways that students learn

content area literacy.

Expository text can be

about any number of

topics and usually falls

under one of the

following categories:


Cause and Effect

Compare and Contrast

Time Order


Problem / solution

7. Persuasion

graphic organizers
Graphic organizers

Graphic organizers are a means for students to

represent ideas they gain or form during literacy

activities. They help children to put their

thoughts into purposeful designs and allow them

to focus on making meaning from text. Certain

types of graphic organizers are particularly useful

of reading different types of expository text, but

they can just as easily be used for fictional texts.

graphic organizers1
Graphic organizers

Some examples of graphic organizers include:


(used for Cause and Effect, Compare and Contrast,

or other categorization)


Fishbone organizer

(used for Cause and Effect, or Description)


Venn Diagrams

(used for Compare and Contrast)


Time Order chart

(used for Enumeration)


bloom s taxonomy skyscraper model
Bloom’s Taxonomy / Skyscraper model

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a

model that

demonstrates lower to

higher order thinking.

Ideally, a teacher finds

a way to engage his or

her students at all levels

of the model when

considering a text.

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assessment methods
Assessment methods

There are several ways to assess student’s progress

in reading. Some of those ways include:

Yetta’s Goodman’s Interview Questions

These interview questions find out what a child knows about

reading and what sort of reading experiences she or he has at


assessment methods1
Assessment methods

Running Records

The teacher listens to a child read a text and marks ticks for correct

words and the appropriate miscues when they are made. This

assessment can be done informally and quickly. Student miscues

come from one of three systems: Meaning, Syntax,

or Visual. Used in the lower elementary grades.

Reading Miscue Inventories

The teacher records a student reading and observes the student’s

reading. Later the teacher records and analyzes the miscues made.

Used in the upper elementary grades.

reading interventions
Reading interventions

The need will always exist to help striving readers

meet the challenges they face. Reading intervention

programs do just that. Programs such as Response to

Intervention (RTI) call on the teacher to provide high

quality instruction for all students, extra instruction

outside of the normal classroom instruction time in

small groups no large than five for those students

who need it, and a focus on reinforcement of reading

skills instead of drilling, or assigning less or more of

the same homework.


Throughout this presentation I have demonstrated

philosophies and approaches to reading, major

components, applications, assessment methods, and

interventions for reading instruction.

Using this knowledge I feel fully prepared to create a

welcoming and rich reading environment for the

students I will one day have in class. With the

knowledge demonstrated above, I have the tools to

help all students achieve reading success.

  • Baer, G. T. & Dow, R. S. (2007). Self-Paced Phonics: A Text for Educators. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice-Hall.
  • Brewer, J. & Harp, B. (2005). The Informed Reading Teacher: Research-Based Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice-Hall.
  • Education Oasis. (2006).
  • P. Solvie, Reading Methods: Literacy and Language Instruction in the Elementary School

class lecture, November, 2009.