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The Endocrine System

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  1. The Endocrine System Dr. Walid Daoud Assistant Professor

  2. Endocrine System The endocrine and nervous system control the function of other systems. The endocrine system release hormones in the blood stream. - Thyroid gland and Parathyroid glands - Adrenal gland, Pancreas. - Pituitary gland. - Thymus gland. - Sex glands (gonads)

  3. Thyroid gland - Located anteriorly in the neck - 2 lobes separated by an isthmus. - It secretes thyroid hormones. - Thyroxine: essential for maintaining normal growth of bone and sex organs, metabolism and energy production. • - Calcitonin: • A calcium lowering hormone

  4. Parathyroid gland - 2 pairs located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. - It secretes parathyroid hormone which regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism for blood, bone and teeth. - It is a calcium-raising hormone

  5. Adrenal gland Adrenal cortex: outer portion It secretes steroid hormones. Adrenal medulla: inner portion It secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine The gland is an emergency organ that works during stress.

  6. Pancreas Exocrine part: It secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum for digestion of food. Endocrine part: Islands of Langerhans secrete insulin and glucagon hormones for regulation of carbohydrates metabolism.

  7. Pituitary gland The master gland in the base of brain. Anterior lobe (Adenohypophysis): It secretes regulating factors to regulate the functions of gonads, thyroid and adrenal gland and growth hormone. Posterior lobe (Neurohypophysis): It stores and releases hormones secreted by the hypothalamus: - Antidiuretic hormone (ADH). - Oxytocin.

  8. Thymus, Pineal body and sex glands Thymusis prominent in the child and tends to atrophy in adults. It produces T-lymphocytes for cellular immunity. Pineal bodysecretes melatonin hormone and degenerates by the age of 7 years. Sex glands: - Ovaries: estrogen and progesterone. - Testes: testosterone

  9. Disorders of Endocrine System Thyroid gland: Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis). Hypothyroidism: - Myxedema in adults. - Cretinism in infants. Parathyroid gland: Hypoparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism.

  10. Disorders of Endocrine System Anterior pituitary: - Gigantism. - Acromegaly. - Hypopituitarism. Posterior pituitary: - Diabetes insipidus. Pancreas: - Diabetes mellitus.

  11. WR/CF related to Endocrine System

  12. Suffixes Related to Endocrine System

  13. Surgical Terms Related To Endocrine System Page 268-269

  14. Answer Worksheets 1-6 Page 271-277