The Endocrine System Dr. Walid Daoud Assistant Professor
Endocrine System The endocrine and nervous system control the function of other systems. The endocrine system release hormones in the blood stream. - Thyroid gland and Parathyroid glands - Adrenal gland, Pancreas. - Pituitary gland. - Thymus gland. - Sex glands (gonads)
Thyroid gland - Located anteriorly in the neck - 2 lobes separated by an isthmus. - It secretes thyroid hormones. - Thyroxine: essential for maintaining normal growth of bone and sex organs, metabolism and energy production. • - Calcitonin: • A calcium lowering hormone
Parathyroid gland - 2 pairs located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. - It secretes parathyroid hormone which regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism for blood, bone and teeth. - It is a calcium-raising hormone
Adrenal gland Adrenal cortex: outer portion It secretes steroid hormones. Adrenal medulla: inner portion It secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine The gland is an emergency organ that works during stress.
Pancreas Exocrine part: It secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum for digestion of food. Endocrine part: Islands of Langerhans secrete insulin and glucagon hormones for regulation of carbohydrates metabolism.
Pituitary gland The master gland in the base of brain. Anterior lobe (Adenohypophysis): It secretes regulating factors to regulate the functions of gonads, thyroid and adrenal gland and growth hormone. Posterior lobe (Neurohypophysis): It stores and releases hormones secreted by the hypothalamus: - Antidiuretic hormone (ADH). - Oxytocin.
Thymus, Pineal body and sex glands Thymusis prominent in the child and tends to atrophy in adults. It produces T-lymphocytes for cellular immunity. Pineal bodysecretes melatonin hormone and degenerates by the age of 7 years. Sex glands: - Ovaries: estrogen and progesterone. - Testes: testosterone
Disorders of Endocrine System Thyroid gland: Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis). Hypothyroidism: - Myxedema in adults. - Cretinism in infants. Parathyroid gland: Hypoparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism.
Disorders of Endocrine System Anterior pituitary: - Gigantism. - Acromegaly. - Hypopituitarism. Posterior pituitary: - Diabetes insipidus. Pancreas: - Diabetes mellitus.
Surgical Terms Related To Endocrine System Page 268-269
Answer Worksheets 1-6 Page 271-277