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SHIP: Performance. Reference: “SHIP mobility management hybrid SIP-HIP scheme” So, J.Y.H.; Jidong Wang; Jones, D.; Sixth International Conference on 23-25 May 2005 Page(s):226 - 230 Digital Object ID 10.1109/SNPD-SAWN.2005.68. Background .

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Ship performance

SHIP: Performance

Reference: “SHIP mobility management hybrid SIP-HIP scheme”

So, J.Y.H.; Jidong Wang; Jones, D.;

Sixth International Conference on 23-25 May 2005

Page(s):226 - 230

Digital Object ID 10.1109/SNPD-SAWN.2005.68


  • In the current wireless networks, wireless management can be handled in Data Link Layer or Physical Layer

  • In the 4G wireless networks, handover between different wireless networks can’t be handle by the old method

  • Network Layer and Application Layer are the most suitable layers for the mobility management

Session initiation protocol
Session Initiation Protocol

  • An Application Layer protocol used to create or tear down multimedia session

  • Can perform mobility support that is independent of the underlying wireless technology and network layer element in the Application Layer

  • The best choice for real-time application only

Session initiation protocol cont
Session Initiation Protocol (cont.)

  • Application Layer protocol will get lowest priority in networking model and so a long delay in hand-off will occur

  • Doesn’t support mobility in other connections that aren’t created under SIP

  • Hybrid SIP and other protocols are considered by many research

  • changing addresses or ports, adding a media stream, deleting a media stream, etc.

    • re-INVITE

Host identify protocol
Host Identify Protocol

  • Introduces a new namespace - Host Identity and a new layer - Host Identity Layer

  • HI (Host Identifier) is represented with a 128-bit long HIT (Host Identity Tag)

  • HI that is a cryptographic key of a public-private key-pair will be used to identify node and endpoint instead of IP addresses

Host identify protocol cont
Host Identify Protocol (cont.)

  • 4-way handshake

  • Diffie-Hellman authenticated key is exchanged during handshake

  • Diffie-Hellman key is used to establish a pair of IPsec ESP (Encapsulated Security Payload) SAs (Security Associations) between hosts

4 way handshake of hip
4-way handshake of HIP

Initiator Responder

I1: trigger exchange

Select pre-computed R1

R1: puzzle, D-H, key, sig

Check sig Remain stateless

Solve puzzle

I2: solution, D-H, {key}, sig

Compute D-H Check puzzleCheck sig

R2: sig

Check sig Compute D-H

Security Context established

ESP protected messages

Hip packet structure
HIP packet structure

  • Packets traveling in the network doesn’t contain the actual HI information

Hip packet structure cont
HIP packet structure (cont.)

  • Arriving packets is identified and mapped to the correct SA using the SPI (Security Parameter Index) value in the IPsec header

Hip mobility
HIP - mobility

  • DNS may not be able to update immediately

  • RVS (Rendezvous Server) is similar to the HA in Mobile IP

  • DNS will carry the mapping between FQDN and the corresponding RVS IP addresses

  • Direct mapping between HI and IP addresses of the host will be stored in RVS

Hi ip mapping
HI-IP Mapping

A.DNS only

B.DNS with RVS

Hip mid session mobility
HIP - Mid-session mobility

  • Send the UPDATE package with REA (Readdress) parameter to the other nodes and its RVS

  • Critical scenarios

    • Double jump problem

    • IP address changes during the 4-way handshakes

    • Solved by involving RVS

Ship hybrid sip hip

  • Pre-session

    • SIP location server will return the HI address instead of an IP address

    • Until the mapping of the SIP, URI and HI address is changed, no updates are required in the SIP location server

  • Mid-session

    • HIP UPDATE package with REA parameter will be sent to the corresponding host

    • SIP doesn’t need to send re-INVITE message

Handoff signaling analysis

Dhandoff = Ddhcp + Dnotice

Dnotice =

Ohandoff =

Handoff Signaling Analysis

Handoff signaling delay
Handoff Signaling Delay

SIP =140 bytes; HIP = 80 bytes; Mobile IP = 56 bytes

Handoff signaling delay cont
Handoff Signaling Delay (cont.)

  • Hybrid SIP-Mobile IP need to use HA to re-direct the packet until the SIP re-INVITE progress is completed

    • Two handoff processes are needed in one handoff

  • Handoff only needs to be processed once in SHIP

Handoff signaling overhead cont
Handoff Signaling Overhead (cont.)

  • Overhead of hybrid SIP-Mobile IP scheme will be the sum of the Mobile IP and SIP as two handoff processes are needed

  • SHIP has been shown to outperform than hybrid SIP-Mobile IP


  • This paper has proposed SHIP for future IP based wireless networks

  • SHIP avoids the re-INVITE message in SIP and therefore, its signaling message is smaller

  • SHIP also provides multi-homing support, which does not exist in hybrid SIP-Mobile IP


  • Session Initiation Protocol

    • RFC-3261

  • HIP Working Group (Internet-Draft)


  • Host Identity Protocol - Extended Abstract

    • Ericsson Research, NomadicLab (WWRF8bis)

  • Mobility support in wireless Internet

    • Wireless Communications (IEEE)