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Human Reproduction. Human Reproductive System. Male. Female. Male or Female???. DNA determines baby’s gender XX = Female XY = Male Depends on which egg & sperm get together. Father determines baby’s gender. Male Uncomplicated Produce sperm 2-4 MILLION every day. Female

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male or female
Male or Female???
  • DNA determines baby’s gender
  • XX = Female
  • XY = Male
  • Depends on which egg & sperm get together.
  • Father determines baby’s gender.
slide4
Male

Uncomplicated

Produce sperm

2-4 MILLION every day

Female

Very Complicated!

One egg

Once a month

Careful coordination of hormones & body

Timing perfect!

females
Females
  • Ovaries
    • 2 pouches
      • Contain ova
        • Born with all of her eggs (~ 400,000)
        • Use up ~500
        • Won’t run out!
  • Ovulation
    • One egg released from ovary to oviduct (fallopian tube)
after ovulation
After Ovulation
  • Egg pushed along by cilia
  • Few days travel time to arrive in uterus
  • Cervix – Opening between uterus & vagina
    • Normally tiny
    • At birth – muscles pull open (dilation) cervix to allow baby to pass through = Labor
menstrual cycle
Menstrual Cycle
  • Complex combination of 10-12 chemicals (hormones)
  • Usually one egg once a month
  • All about timing!!!
    • Uterus must be ready when egg gets there in case it was fertilized
    • If no fertilization, tear down lining of uterus and rebuild for next month
28 day cycle average
28-Day Cycle (average)
  • Three Stages
    • Tear Down
    • Rebuild
    • Extra nutrients/blood for potential baby
  • No Baby?
    • Back to #1
chemicals hormones
Chemicals (hormones)
  • Regulate events in the body
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
    • Many others
day 1
Day 1
  • First menstrual blood & tissue
  • No baby = breaks down lining of uterus
  • 5-7 days of blood/tissue exits body

Pre-Ovulation

day 14
~Day 14
  • Ovulation = Egg released
  • Temp spikes slightly
  • Most fertile in next few days!
    • Able to get pregnant
  • Egg gets fertilized while traveling through oviduct.

Post-Ovulation

if fertilized
If fertilized…
  • Zygote begins to divide as it travels through oviduct
  • Implants into lining of uterus
if not fertilized
If not fertilized…
  • Egg travels through oviduct to uterus
  • Exits body with blood and tissues during menstruation
birth control pills
Birth Control Pills
  • “Trick” body into thinking it’s pregnant
    • Extra hormones
    • No ovulation occurs
    • No ovulation = no egg = no fertilization = no baby!
slide16
Male
  • Testes
    • Produce 2-4 million sperm every day
    • Outside body – why?
      • Sperm like temps 1-2 cooler than body temp
  • Vas Deferens
    • Tube sperm travel through
semen
Semen
  • Contains
    • 300-500 million sperm
    • Sperm food
    • pH buffers
  • Allows sperm to survive for a couple of days inside female’s body
slide18
Now…
  • Contains Several Parts:
    • Head
      • Chemical to dissolve egg goo
      • Dad’s genetic information (DNA)
    • Mitochondria
      • Energy
    • Tail
      • Swimming
prostate gland
Prostate Gland
  • Adds stuff to semen
    • pH buffers
    • Nourishment
conception fertilization1
Conception/Fertilization
  • Ejaculation
    • Release of 300-500 million sperm
  • Egg needs to be in oviduct
  • Sperm to egg, not an easy task
    • Go wrong direction : 2 paths – only 1 leads to an egg
    • Get attacked by female’s white blood cells
    • Acidic environment
    • Current
once egg is located
Once egg is located…
  • Dissolve protective goo surrounding egg
  • One gets through – enters egg
  • Instant biochemical change in zygote
    • No more sperm allowed in
slide23

Gamete – Sex cell; sperm and ova

  • Zygote – Cell formed after male and female gametes join immediately following fertilization
implants in uterine lining
Implants in uterine lining
  • Blastocyst implants in outer lining of uterus
  • Uses mother’s nutrients
  • Continues development
fetal development
Fetal Development
  • Anmion
    • Membrane surrounding baby
    • Contains amniotic fluid
    • Breaks just before birth = “water broke”
  • Amniotic Fluid
    • The “water” – surrounding baby
    • Buoyant cradle for baby
      • Protection
      • Free movement
fetal dev cont d
Fetal Dev (cont’d)
  • Umbilical Cord
    • Blood vessels from placenta to baby
    • Mom’s & baby’s blood do not circulate together!
      • Can have 2 different blood types
      • Diffusion
birth
Birth
  • Labor – muscles used to open cervix
  • Baby flips upside down
    • Head first!
    • Feet first = Breech (bad)
      • Cesarian Section (“C-section”) surgical removal of baby
  • After baby is born mom delivers placenta (“afterbirth”) that detaches from uterus
breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
  • Most nutritious option for baby
    • Milk changes as baby grows
  • Antibodies from mom create immunity for baby
  • Studies have shown correlation between breastfeeding and higher intelligence in baby.
  • Bond w/baby is stronger
twins multiple births
Twins/Multiple Births
  • Two types
    • Monozygotic
      • From one egg
      • Identical
    • Dizygotic
      • From two eggs
      • Fraternal
      • Not identical
identical twins
Identical twins
  • One zygote
  • Splits in 2
  • No one knows why!
  • Completely random = does NOT run in families
  • Same exact DNA
  • Nature’s clones
fraternal twins
Fraternal Twins
  • 2 separate eggs get fertilized with 2 different sperm cells
  • More than one egg got released during ovulation
  • Siblings
    • Can be sisters
    • Brothers
    • Brother and sister
  • Tends to run in families
conjoined twins
Conjoined Twins
  • Used to be called “Siamese” twins
  • First well known case was in Siam
  • Identical twins that never completely separated during development
  • Sometimes can be separated, depending on what is shared.