Zoonotic Pathogens: An Introduction . Dr. Emilo DeBess Oregon Health Division Dr. McKinley Thomas Augusta State University. Zoonotic Diseases. ...cause infections in animals and can be transmitted to humans …are typically endemic and occur in a natural foci
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Dr. Emilo DeBess
Oregon Health Division
Dr. McKinley Thomas
Augusta State University
Reptile-associated Human Salmonella
1944 First Salmonella sp. isolate from snakes.
1946 First Salmonella sp. isolate from turtles and lizards.
1963 Turtle-associated salmonellosis first described.
1972 FDA regulation requiring certification of turtles for sale as
1974 Study shows 300,000 turtle-associated human
salmonellosis cases per year in U.S.
1975 FDA bans sale of viable turtle eggs or live turtles with
carapace length < 10.2 cm.
1977 CA State regulations ban sale, as above.
Salmonella Infection in Reptiles
DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY OR ELIMINATE CARRIERS.
Chiodini RJ, Am J Epidemiol 1981.
Loss of vision, mental retardation, loss of hearing, and death in severe cases, are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children.
by State of Residence
1 - 5 cases
6 - 10 cases
11 -15 cases
277 cases in 31 states
Chronically infected rodent
Horizontal transmission of infection by intraspecific aggressive behavior
Virus also present in throat swab and feces
Virus is present in aerosolized excreta, particularly urine
Secondary aerosols, mucous membrane contact, and skin breaches are also a consideration
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov
We would like to acknowledge Michelle Jay, DVM,MPVM for providing materials for this presentation.