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Last minute revision. Paper 4 – Alternative to coursework. Fieldwork experi - ments. Weather Instruments a nd Clouds. Paper 4 question types. HOME. Stratus. Alto Cumulous. Alto Stratus. Nimbostratus. Cirrostratus. Strato Cumulous. Cirrus. HOME. River fieldwork.

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last minute revision

Last minute revision

Paper 4 – Alternative to coursework


Fieldwork experi-






Paper 4 question types



river fieldwork
River fieldwork

To measure the depth of the channel

to draw a cross-section:

Place a ranging pole on either side

of the channel

2. Measure the width of the channel using a tape measure

3. Measure the depth of the channel every 50cm using a meter rule

To measure the stream velocity:

Measure out 10m using the tape measure and mark using ranging poles

Use something that floats and time how long it takes to travel 10m using a stopwatch

Repeat the experiment to get a more reliable set of results

Note: You could improve this experiment by using a flowmeter and by repeating the experiment on different parts of the rivers course

beach fieldwork
Beach fieldwork

To measure a slope or beach profile:

Measure the width of the beach using the tape


2. Place a ranging pole every 5m

3. Measure the angle between each ranging pole

using the Clinometer being careful to keep the

ranging poles straight

4. Another member of the group should record the


To measure long shore drift:

Place ranging poles 20m apart parallel to the


2. Throw an orange into the waves from the central


3. Time with a stopwatch how long it takes for the orange to travel the 10m.

Record both speed and direction of long shore drift.

4. Repeat the experiment

Note: This experiment can be improved by repeating it on another part of the

beach for comparison or in different sea conditions.

infiltration rates
Infiltration rates

Place the tube on the ground. Hold it down so that no water escapes from the bottom

Measure out 100cl of water with a measuring cylinder and pour the water into the tube

Time with the stopwatch how long it takes for the water to infiltrate into the soil. The quicker it takes, the higher the infiltration rate.

Repeat the experiment

Note: Infiltration rates will be higher after rain because the ground will be saturated. Erosion of the ground (on footpaths) will slow down infiltration rates.

writing questions
Writing questions

Study the hypotheses to see what data you need to collect with your questions

Closed questions are usually the most appropriate


Hypothesis – “People will travel further to visit the CBD than a local shop”

Hypothesis – “People will spend more money in the CBD than a local shop”


How far have you travelled to shop today?

Less than 1km

Between 1 and 5km

More than 10 km

How much have you spent today?

Less than 10 pounds

Between 10 and 40 pounds

More than 40 pounds



This is when information is collected visually.You give a score to a location by judging it against criteria.


You may be asked about planning this experiment, that would deciding how you were going to judge what is very noise, quite noisy etc. Splitting up the study area between groups, staying in pairs for safety etc.

method questions
Method questions

These are questions about how you do an experiment

Name the fieldwork equipment and how you would use it in this experiment

results questions
Results questions

You might be asked to describe a set of results

Describe the trend or pattern

Back up your description with data


Temperatures rose during the study period, from 12 degrees C on Monday to 14 degrees C on Friday.

conclusions questions
Conclusions questions

You might be asked to write a conclusion to an experiment. Look at the hypothesis and the data and then write your conclusion using the hypothesis as a starting point. Back it up with data if the question asks for it.

  • Example:

The hypothesis is correct, temperatures were higher when there were lower amounts of rainfall. On Monday there was 5mm of rain and temperature was 12 degrees C but on Wednesday there was no rain and temperature was 16 degrees C.

evaluation questions
Evaluation questions

You might be asked to suggest improvements to an experiment.

Here are some things you can say that will always be relevant:

They should repeat the experiment to get a more accurate result

They should repeat the experiment on different days/seasons/conditions to be able to make a comparison