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Trust and Reputation Based mechanisms for CIP. Uniparthenope, UniRC, Polito. (Fai della Paganella, 10-12 Febbraio 2014). Objectives. To enhance the cyber security of Wireless Sensor Networks ( WSNs ) deployed to protect CIs by exploiting Trust and Reputation Model based techniques

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trust and reputation based mechanisms for cip

Trust and Reputation Based mechanisms for CIP

Uniparthenope, UniRC, Polito

(Fai della Paganella, 10-12 Febbraio 2014)

  • To enhance the cyber security of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed to protectCIs by exploiting Trust and Reputation Model basedtechniques
    • IntrusionToleranceat the routinglevel
security of wsns
Security of WSNs
  • WSNs have low computational resources and energy supply
    • Limit the number of exchangedmessages
    • Limit the usage of cryptographicmechanisms
  • WSNs are deployed in unattended, hostile, environments
trust and reputation
Trust and Reputation

A trust and reputation model is proposed to improve cyber defense. Say Node 3 wants to estimate trust and reputation perceived about Node 2:

  • Node 3 estimates a trust score of Node 2 through a direct measure related to Node 2
  • Node 3 estimates a reputation score of Node 2 through indirect measurements, e.g. by observing the trust level perceived by Node 1 wrt Node 2
attack model sinkhole attack
Attack Model: Sinkhole Attack
  • Trust and reputation-based scores to ensure resilience against attacks such as sinkhole

No attack

(BS = Base Station)

Node 3 successfully attacks

trust and reputation model
Trust and Reputation Model

The model proposed acts as follows:

  • When Node 3 starts an attack, by pretending to have the best route toward destination, we need:
    • A reliableway to checkifitislying (to measure trust)
    • A way to share thisinformation (to update neighbournsreputation)

(BS = Base Station)

test of trustworthiness
Test of Trustworthiness

Assuming to have a routing protocol enabling parties authentication

  • Node 4 forcesa pingthroughtwo alternate pathsone of whichincludes the node under test
  • Node 4 chooses the route with lower round trip time
  • If the selectedpathdoesnot use the testednodeas gateway the trust level of node 3 islowered
    • T43(t+1) = k* T43(t) k < 1


  • If a change in the trust levelof node 3 isgoing to occour, node 4 forwards a feedback to each of the nodes in itsneightbour list.
  • Eachnodereceiving the feedback accordinglycorrects the reputation of node 3
    • Ri3(t+1) = f(Ri3(t), ΔT43)
intrusion tolerance
  • When a node must select a parent to reach the BS thisevaluationwill be based on: quality of the channel, trust level, and reputationlevel of the candidate node.
    • Thatis a Dependabilityfunctionisevaluated for each candidate and the new parentwill be the one with highestdependabilityvalue:
      • For each j in N: Dij(t+1) = f(Qij(t),Tij(t),Rij(t)) (N set of neighbours)
      • The node j suchthatDij(t+1) =Max(Dij(t+1)) isselectedas the parentone
aodv routing protocol
AODV Routing Protocol
  • Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a standard routing protocol defined by RFC 3561 (
  • AODV is widely adopted e.g. in Bluetooth and Zigbee

  • A WSN was simulated through NS-3
  • NS3 is a command-line, open source (GNU GPL v2) network simulator
  • Programming languages: C++, Python
  • Different WSNs routing protocols are implemented such as Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) and Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV)

future steps
Future Steps
  • To complete implementation
  • To test the effectiveness of the proposed model under different testbedconfigurations, and parameters tuning
  • To extendthe approach to manageotherkind of attacks