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Massacre of Israeli Olympic team in Munich, Sept 5, 1972. PowerPoint Presentation
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Massacre of Israeli Olympic team in Munich, Sept 5, 1972.

Massacre of Israeli Olympic team in Munich, Sept 5, 1972.

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Massacre of Israeli Olympic team in Munich, Sept 5, 1972.

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  1. Massacre of Israeli Olympic team in Munich, Sept 5, 1972. What were the motivations and means of Black September with the Munich terrorist act

  2. Outline • Background of events in 1972 prior to the Munich Olympics terrorist act • Overview of the Black September group • How the Black September group organised the 1972 Munich terrorist act • Why the Munich Olympics were favourable for a terrorist act • Tuesday Sept.5th 1972 • Outcomes for Black September & PLO • Summary

  3. Events prior to the1972 Munich Olympic attacks • Palestinian groups failure to execute attacks against Israel in West bank or Gaza • Success of attacks outside of the middle east ie. Europe • Palestinian attacks during 1972 before the Munich Olympics • This influenced Palestinian operations to become bolder, more sophisticated and theatrical (Klein pg.47 2006)

  4. Events prior to the1972 Munich Olympic attacks Continued. • Sabena Hijacking, May 8th 1972 • Failure by Black September “The failure of the Sabera Hijacking increased the resolve of Black September’s leadership. They were determined to pull off an unprecedented, earth- shaking attack.. they chose the Munich Olympics” (Klein pg 23, 2006)

  5. Black September • Has no offices, addresses, official leaders or spokespersons • Abu-Iyad • Founded the years prior to 1972 in response to King Hussein’s expelling and killing of many Palestinians from Jordan • First successful attack by group on Israelis

  6. Why the Munich Olympics? Abu-Iyad in his book Stateless wrote the Munich operation had three goals • “to present the existence of the Palestinian people to the whole world, whether they like it or not” • “to secure the release of over 200 Palestinian fighters locked in Israel jails” • “to use the unprecedented number of media outlets in one city to display the Palestinian struggle for better or worse”

  7. Why the Munich Olympics? Continued. • International setting as stated by Abu-Iyad • “the west German government was woefully unprepared to protect the security of the Olympics held in Munich” • Europe’s lenience on terrorists at this time

  8. Black September’s organisation of Munich 1972 • Training on the Mediteranean shore, a few miles south of Beirut • Six of the fifty trained chosen for Munich • Further training in Libya, month prior to Munich • Remaining two terrorists chosen for operation were the appointed commander and his second in command Black September Palestinian terrorist During hostage negotiations, Sept.5th1972

  9. Tuesday Sept.5th 1972 • Palestinian terrorists early morning enter Olympic grounds • Faced no opposition by security • Killed 2 Israelis in initial hours • Negotiations occurred throughout the day for the release of over 200 Palestinian fighters from Israeli jails

  10. Outcomes for Black September & PLO “we have made one of the best achievements of Palestinian commando action… It was like painting the name of Palestine on a mountain that can be seen from the four corners of the earth” (excerpt from a Black September statement, one week after Munich)

  11. Outcomes for Black September & PLO Continued. “Arafat (PLO Leader) received the legitimization he had long been seeking – an invitation to speak at the U.N. General Assembly, where he was greeted like a hero and statesman, not as a cold blooded murderer with the blood of American diplomats, Israeli olympians and Jewish children on his hands” (pg.49 Dershawitz)

  12. Outcomes for Black September & PLO Continued • The Black September group in the following years had the confidence to become bolder in their terrorist activities

  13. Summary • Motivations to commit Munich Massacre • Preparations made for the terrorist act • Impact this had politically for the Black September & therefore PLO • Reasons why this terrorist act was so successful “It is doubtful whether the PLO could have achieved this success had it not resorted to international terrorism” (pg.49 Dershawitz)

  14. References • Klein, A (2006). Striking Back. Australia: Random House Publishing. • Dershowitz, A (2002). Why Terrorism Works. Australia: Scribe Publications

  15. Bibliography • Davies, B, 2003. TERRORISM, Inside a world phenomenon. 1st ed. Great Britain: Virgin Books Ltd. • Whittaker, D (2007). Second Edition. Terrorism understanding the global threat. Great Britain. Pearson Education