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JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT. More generally known as ‘GAS TURBINE’ Engine. THE WORKING PARTS OF A JET ENGINE. Rolls-Royce AVON – Canberra – 1950’s technology. JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

More generally known as ‘GAS TURBINE’ Engine

THE WORKING PARTS OF A JET ENGINE

slide2

Rolls-Royce AVON – Canberra – 1950’s technology

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide3

Fuel, Oil, and Hydraulic Pumps, Electrical Generators, RPM Governor.

Rolls-Royce AVON - (Graphic Representation)

Compressor Handling Bleed Valve

Front Engine Mount

Rear Compressor Case

Combustion Chambers (Cans)

Intake Anti-Icing Tube

Jet Pipe (Exhaust)

Front Compressor Casing

Accessory Gearbox

Oil Tank

Turbine Section

Rear Engine Mount

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide4

Turbo-jet = no Bypass Duct

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide5

FRONT BULLET AND SUPPORT VANES

SUPPORT BEARINGS

REAR CONE AND SUPPORT VANES

NOZZLE GUIDE VANES (NGV’S)

STATOR VANES

COMPRESSOR OUTER CASINGS

COMBUSTION OUTER CASINGS

COMBUSTION INNER CASING

COMBUSTION FLAME TUBE

Engine Casings – Static Assembly

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide6

Compressor Blades

Turbine Blades

Shaft Assembly

Rotating Assembly

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide7

Above ambient

Ambient temp

450 Deg C

2,500 Deg C

1,000 Deg C

The shaded area is called the ‘GAS PATH’.

These sections expand first

Problem! Temperature changes cause the shaft and casings to expand and contract

But by different amounts!

This could put tremendous unwanted forces on the casings and shaft leading to failures

(We’ll look at what happens to the air passing through the GAS PATH in

Gas Turbine Operation.)

Solution? Its all in the bearings!

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide8

Front Bearing Chamber

Centre Bearing Chamber

Rear Bearing Chamber

Roller Bearing

Ball Bearing (Location Bearing)

Roller Bearing

Bearing Chambers

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide9

Ball Bearings Provide Positive Axial Location

Hot section

Casing

Shaft

Front Bearing Chamber

Centre Bearing Chamber

Rear Bearing Chamber

Casing

Representation of jet engine bearing layout

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide10

Casing

Then, with ‘heat soak’ the shaft expands

Casing

Shaft and Casing have no differential movement at this point

Representation of jet engine layout

The casing expands first - pushing the rear outer bearing with it

The same happens at the front with pressured air and heat sink from the combustor heating the hardware

The engine is actually designed to dimensions based on normal operating temperatures

Shaft

JET ENGINE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT

slide11

JET ENGINE COMBUSTOR OPERATION

WHERE THE POWER IS PRODUCED

slide12

THE COMBUSTION PROCESS

IN A PISTON ENGINE: -

FUEL IS MIXED WITH AIR BEFORE ENTERING THE CYLINDERS

THE FUEL/AIR MIXTURE IS THEN COMPRESSED

THEN IT IS IGNITED BY A SPARK

ONCE FOR TWO REVS OF THE ENGINE (IN THE 4 STROKE CYCLE)

IN A JET ENGINE: -

AIR IS COMPRESSED AND FORCED INTO THE COMBUSTOR FIRST

THEN THE FUEL IS SPRAYED IN UNDER PRESSURE

IT IS THEN IGNITED BY A SPARK (BUT ONLY ONCE FOR STARTING)

COMBUSTION IS THEN CONTINUOUS WHILST THE ENGINE IS RUNNING

THE SAME AS A PLUMBERS BLOW TORCH!

JET ENGINE – Combustion Process

slide13

We’re going to look in detail at what happens here

But first we’ll look at the layout

of the combustion system

JET ENGINE – Combustor Layout

slide14

ENGINE STRUCTURE AND SHAFTS

EACH CAN HAS A FUEL SPRAY NOZZLE (FSN)

OUTER

CASING

INNER

CASING

COMBUSTOR LAYOUT – (ALSO HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT)

INDIVIDUAL COMBUSTORS – ‘CANS’

1st JET ENGINES

WHITTLE ETC

FLAME CONTAINED WITHIN THIS TUBE ‘FLAME-TUBE’

JET ENGINE – Combustor Layout

slide15

IGNITERS

COMBUSTOR LAYOUT – (ALSO HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT)

CANS CONNECTED TOGETHER

TO EQUALISE PRESSURES

AND

TO SPREAD THE FLAME ON START UP

TYPICAL OF DART SERIES TURBO PROPS

JET ENGINE – Combustor Layout

slide17

INDIVIDUAL CANS WITH INTER-CONNECTORS

ANNULAR OUTER CASING

IGNITERS

COMBUSTOR LAYOUT

‘CAN-ANNULAR’ LAYOUT

ALSO FORMS THE ENGINE STRUCTURE

TYPICAL OF SPEY &TAY BYPASS ENGINES

JET ENGINE – Combustor Layout

slide19

ANNULAR OUTER CASING

ANNULAR INNER CASING

COMBUSTOR LAYOUT

ANNULAR LAYOUT

GIVES EVEN TEMPERATURE FACE TO TURBINE BLADES

THE LAYOUT OF CHOICE FOR MODERN BYPASS ENGINES

ALLOWS MORE FSN’S TO BE FITTED

JET ENGINE – Combustor Layout

slide21

THE CROSS SECTION OF ALL THESE LAYOUTS IS VIRTUALLY IDENTICAL

AND THEREFORE SO IS THE AIRFLOW!

JET ENGINE – Combustor Layout

slide22

Outer Combustion Casing

82% Cooling Flow

Inner Flame Tube

1st Stage NGV’s

18% Vortex Flow

Recirculating Vortex

Fuel Feed

JET ENGINE – Combustion Process