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Using Hand Tools. Mr. G. Pullom MCTC Sept. 2006. Objectives. 1. Discuss how to select hand tools. 2. Identify and explain how to use layout tools. 3. Identify and explain how to use cutting, shaping, and boring tools. 4. Identify and explain how to use holding and turning tools.

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using hand tools

Using Hand Tools

Mr. G. Pullom

MCTC Sept. 2006

  • 1. Discuss how to select hand tools.
  • 2. Identify and explain how to use layout tools.
  • 3. Identify and explain how to use cutting, shaping, and boring tools.
  • 4. Identify and explain how to use holding and turning tools.
  • 5. Identify and explain how to use driving and wrecking tools.
objective 1
Objective 1
  • How can I know what tools to select?
    • A tool is any instrument used in doing work
    • A hand tool is any tool operated by hand to do work.
    • A power tool is operated by some source of power other than human power.
objective 2
Objective 2
  • What tools are needed to measure and mark materials in layout?
    • A layout tool is a tool used to measure or mark wood, metal, and other materials.
    • Rulers can be one foot, yardsticks, and meter sticks.
    • Wooden folding rules are generally 6 foot long and their rigidness makes them useful in making vertical measurements.
    • Locking tape measures come in lengths ranging from 6 foot to 30 foot, a width of ½ to 1 inch, they lock open, and use a spring to retract the tape with the push of a button.
    • 100 ft wind up tape is useful in building layout work where distances over 30 ft must be measured
    • Standard English measurement units of inches, feet and yards
objective 2 cont
Objective 2 cont.
  • Marking tools
    • Carpenter’s pencil is flat-sided, more durable, and is shaped with a utility knife.
    • Keel or carpenter’s crayon is similar to a grease pencil and may show up better in some types of work than a pencil
    • Marking gauge uses a ruler with a wooden clamping block and a marking pin to mark lines parallel to the edges of material
    • Chalk line is a 50 to 100 foot string wound inside a box filled with powered chalk dust
    • Scratch awl is a pointed metal tool with a handle used to mark metal
    • Center punch is a punch ground to a 60 degree angle point and is used to mark a metal location prior to drilling
objective 2 cont1
Objective 2 cont.
  • Squares-a tool used to mark square straight lines for cutting, laying out angles, etc
    • Framing square has a blade which is 24 inches long and 2 inches wide and a tongue that is 16 inches long and 1 ½ inches wide
    • Try square is a rigid square like the framing square only smaller, commonly 8 inches long
    • Sliding T-bevel is adjustable so that it can be set at any angle from 0 to 180 degrees
    • Speed square is a small triangular square that can be used to mark both square and angled cuts
    • Combination square can be used as a straightedge, a marking gauge, a depth gauge, a 90 degree square, a 45 degree angle marker or a level
objective 2 cont2
Objective 2 cont.
  • Level is used to determine whether a surface is flat (perfectly horizontal) or plumb (perfectly vertical)
    • Spirit level include the 9 in, 18 in, 24 in, and 48 in
    • Digital level is a battery operated electronic level that beeps when it is perfectly level or plumb
    • Line level is a small level attached to a line to guide work such as laying concrete blocks
    • Plumb bob is a pointed weight attached to a string used to determine a plumb or vertical line or to find a point directly beneath an overhead point
objective 3
Objective 3
  • What tools are needed to cut, shape, and bore?
    • Crosscut saw is used to cut across the grain of wood.
    • Ripsaw is used for sawing with the grain
    • Keyhole or compass saw is a 12 to 14 inch long narrow saw that starts at about ½ inch wide at the handle and tapering to a point at the end of the blade
    • Coping saw is a small saw with a very thin blade of fine teeth generally used in a miter box to cut molding and trim
    • Backsaw is a finish carpentry saw with fine teeth generally used in a miter box to cut molding and trim
objective 3 cont
Objective 3 cont
  • Shaping tools
    • A plane is a tool used to smooth surfaces and change the size or shape of wood materials
    • Jack plane is usually 14 inches long and used for smoothing long surfaces by shaving with the grain of the wood
    • Block plane is usually 6-6 ½ inches long and is used for smoothing the ends of boards by cutting across the grain
    • Wood chisel is a wedge-shaped cutting tool used to cut notches and shaving off excess wood
    • Wood rasp (wood file) is used for smoothing rough work and for removing small amounts of wood on curved and irregular shaped objects
    • Rasplane is a wood rasp in the shape of a plane
objective 31
Objective 3
  • Boring tools
    • Hand drill is a device with gears that drive its bit much faster than the handle turns
    • Push drill is also called an automatic drill
    • Brace is the device for holding and turning an auger bit
    • Auger bit has a square tang to fit into the brace
objective 4
Objective 4
  • What hand tools are used for holding and turning?
  • C-clamp-shaped like letter C and comes in sizes from 2 to 10 inches
  • Bar clamp-ranges from inches to six ft.
  • Hand screw clamps-requires 2 hands for tightening and can span up to 10 inches
  • Spring clamps-tighten by squeezing the handle
  • Strap clamp-may be ratchet tightened
obj 4 cont
Obj. 4 cont.
  • Machinist’s vise-made for heavy duty work and has jaws that grip materials to keep them from slipping and mounted on a table
  • Blacksmith’s vise-made for heavy duty work and is mounted on the side of a table
  • Utility vise-has a small anvil on the back and has removable jaws
  • Pipe vise-made to hold pipe without denting or flattening
obj 4 cont1
Obj. 4 Cont.
  • Combination pliers-have 2 sizes and are used to hold materials, turn bolts, and cut wire
  • Needle nose-used to retrieve items, place items in tight quarters and twist wire
  • Diagonal side cutting pliers-are used to cut wire
  • Locking pliers-called vise grips are adjustable and can be locked on a nut, bolt or pipe
obj 4 cont2
Obj. 4 cont
  • Adjustable jaw wrenches-cresent wrenches are sized by the length of the handle and be adjusted to fit various sizes
  • Fixed jaw wrenches-box end, open end, or combo of both
  • Box-end wrenches-come as either 6 or 12 point and are used when the nut is very tight
  • Open-end wrenches-faster to use when loosening nuts and are generally offset to a 15 degree angle
  • Combination wrench-gives the advantage of both designs
  • Socket sets-6 or 12 points—contains ratchet and breaker bar
  • Allen wrenches-hex shaped and used to turn set screws
  • Pipe wrenches-adjustable, come is several sizes and are used with pipe and large nuts
objective 5
Objective 5
  • What hand tools are used for driving and wrecking?
  • Curved claw hammer-curve made to remove bent nails
  • Straight claw hammer-used to rip boards
  • Wooden mallets-used with wood chisels with a metal shank
  • Rubber mallets-useful when there is a concern of damaging the material that is being driven
  • Sledge hammer-used for driving stakes, wrecking materials, and etc
obj 5 cont
Obj. 5 cont
  • Crow bars-have a straight end and a curved end with a nail pulling notch in both ends
  • Flat bars-called wonder bars are flat with one straight end and one right angle bend end
  • Cat’s paw-small bar with a curved end and nail pulling nothch