1. Give Questions. OCD is: Gender Specific Hereditary An Anxiety Disorder Cured by Medication. Compulsions are: Thoughts that prevent a normal lifestyle Actions that prevent a normal lifestyle Abnormal Fears Treatments for OCD. Which of the following is an example of OCD?
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by the presence of obsessions or compulsions (or both).
Obsessions are recurrent persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images
that intrude into an individual's thinking (APA, 1994).
Compulsions are repetitive, purposeful behaviors performed in response to an obsession. Individuals perform these actions or rituals to relieve anxiety, avoid some dreaded event, or to prevent or undo discomfort (APA, 1994).
There is single, proven cause of OCD.
Common obsessions reported by individuals with OCD include fear of contamination, harm, illness, or death. They include constant doubt, too.
Common compulsions include washing, cleaning, checking, repeating,touching, and counting rituals (Greist, 1992).
It may be that a delicate interplay between genetics and the environment is responsible for the onset and maintenance of OCD (R.apoport,199I). No specific genes for OCD have yet been identified, but research suggests that genes do play a role in the development of the disorder in some cases.
Childhood-onset OCD tends to run in families (sometimes in association with tic disorders). When a parent has OCD, there is a slightly increased risk that a child will develop OCD, although the risk is still low. When OCD runs in families, it is the general nature of OCD that seems to be inherited, not specific symptoms. Thus a child may have checking rituals, while his mother washes compulsively.
physical, social, or emotional development?
OCD can affect all of the following: Cognitive/language, social, and
emotional development. However, the probability of the affect on social and
emotional development is greater.
Behavioral therapy and medication, alone or in combination, represent the foundation of treatment for these youths. OCD is considered by most psychologists as an incurable disorder.
Stages of Treatment
Acute phase is aimed at ending the current episode
Maintenance treatment is aimed at preventing future episodes of OCD.
There are three common components of treatment. They are: Education, Psychotherapy, and Medication.
This is crucial in helping patients and families learn how best to manage OCD and prevent its complications.
Once a mental health provider diagnoses a child as having OCD, one of several different methods deemed effective in the treatment of childhood OCD will be implemented by the attending clinician(s). Behavioral therapy and medication, alone or in combination, represent the foundation of treatment for these youths.
Behavior therapy: One behavior therapy treatment strategy that is particularly useful for children and adolescents with OCD is exposure and response prevention. Exposure consists of having the patient come into contact with a stimulus that prompts obsessions and provokes compulsions. With response prevention, the individual is encouraged to reframe from carrying out compulsive rituals for a period of time. For example, a child whose fear of contamination has resulted in compulsive hand washing may be asked to pick up and handle a pile of dirt (exposure). The child then resists hand washing for an hour (response prevention). Over time, the child may be asked to wait increasingly longer periods of time before washing. After repeated sessions, which
are approximately 30 to 40 minutes in length, the anxiety associated with
the provoking stimulus typically lessens, as does the urge to ritualize,
Medication: Although many different pharmacological interventions have been implemented in the treatment of OCD, only a few have consistently demonstrated effectiveness in controlled studies. These medications appear to alter the transmission of serotonin, one of the more prominent chemicals in the brain. Of these drugs, Anafranil has been scientifically demonstrated to be successful in the treatment, of childhood OCD. Another drug, Prozac, has been approved for the treatment of OCD, but not for use in children.
However, Prozac has been reported to be safe and relatively effective in the treatment for children and adolescence with OCD. Research efforts are now underway to determine the effectiveness of other medications including Zoloft, Paxil, and Luvox, all of which have the potential to be effective treatments for OCD in patients of all ages.
Common side effects include: Nervousness, insomnia, restlessness, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss or gain, rash, and dizziness.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder tends to be slightly more common in females than in males. The lifetime prevalence of the disorder in women is 2.9 percent, versus 2.0 percent in men. However, in a 1980 study of 20,000 adults from New Haven, Baltimore, St. Louis, Durham, and Los Angeles, the lifetime prevalence rate of OCD for both sexes was recorded at 2.5%.
10. Answers to Questions specific?
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