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The Change Process. The Change Process for Schools, Organizations, and Individuals. Change. Making Change Meaningful. Developed from the Contents of Reginald Leon Green’s. Practicing the Art of Leadership: A Problem-based Approach to Implementing the ISLLC Standards Chapter 7.

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The change process l.jpg

The Change Process

The Change Process for Schools, Organizations, and Individuals


Change l.jpg
Change

Making Change Meaningful


Developed from the contents of reginald leon green s l.jpg
Developed from the Contents of Reginald Leon Green’s

Practicing the Art of Leadership: A Problem-based Approach to Implementing

the ISLLC Standards

Chapter 7


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The Concept of Change

  • Change is a process, not an event. It can be planned or unplanned and can be influenced by forces inside and outside of the schoolhouse.


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Factors Affecting the Change Process

  • Capacity for change

  • Forces that positively influence change

  • Forces that negatively influence change

  • Theories that inform change


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Steps in the Change Process

  • Establishing the vision

  • Determining the state of existing programs

  • Identifying a process that can be

    used to achieve the vision


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The Change Process

Vision

Change

Discrepancy Analysis

State of Current Reality


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Classifying the Change

  • Magnitude of the change

  • Degree of difficulty in making the change


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Classifying the Change

  • First-order or continuous change

  • Second-order or discontinuous change


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First-order or Continuous Change

  • Change occurs without a disruption to the system. The system remains stable, and the equilibrium is maintained.


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Second-order or Discontinuous Change

  • The equilibrium of the system is disrupted as the fundamental properties of the system are changed.


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Change Capacity

Readiness for the desired change


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The Capacity for Change

  • The level of dissatisfaction the stakeholders are experiencing with current conditions

  • The short and long term costs

  • The extent to which individuals understand the vision to be achieved by the change


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The Capacity for Change

  • The consequences of the change

  • The degree of difficulty in making the change


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The Capacity for Change

  • For the school leader to make change that is effective and sustained, producing the least amount of conflict, the school must have a capacity for change.


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The Capacity for Change

  • If the capacity for the desired change is absent, the leader can build capacity.


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Building a Capacity for Change

  • Establish effective lines of communication.

  • Secure community support.

  • Acquire support for the new program concept.

  • Drive fear out of the schoolhouse.


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Building A Capacity For Change

  • Work out bargaining agreements.

  • Acquire necessary approval from all agencies.

  • Identify sources of needed resources.

  • Become knowledgeable of effective change strategies.


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Change Theories and Strategies

Informing Capacity Building


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Change Theories and Strategies

  • Force Field Analysis

  • Empirical-rational Strategy

  • Normative-re-educative Strategy

  • The Power-Coercive Strategy


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Change Theories and Strategies

  • Change Agentry

  • Participatory Change

  • Data-Driven Change


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Force Field Analysis

Assessing the environment in which the change is to occur


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Force Field Analysis

  • The environment in which change occurs contains a force field.


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Force Field Analysis

  • Driving Forces

  • Restraining Forces


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Driving Forces

  • Driving forces move one toward the desired change.

Desired Change


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Restraining Forces

  • Restraining forces resist the desired change, inhibiting its attainment.

Desired Change


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A State of Equilibrium

  • People are viewed as constantly seeking a balance between the power of the two forces, which allows the status quo to be maintained in a frozen state of existence.


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A State of Equilibrium

  • When one of the forces is substantially altered, reflecting a change in the power status of the other, the state of equilibrium is “unfrozen,” and there is a break in the status quo.


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Driving Forces

Power

Restraining Forces


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Restraining Forces

Power

Driving Forces

Restraining Forces


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Reducing the Amount of Conflict

Driving Forces

Restraining Forces

Balance


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Change Strategies

Empirical–Rational

Normative-Re-educative

Power-Coercive


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Empirical–RationalA Non-coercive Approach

  • The leader assembles and presents the necessary information regarding the desired change.


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Empirical–Rational

  • The group selects the action suggested by the data.

Theory Y


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Normative–Re-educativeA Consensus Approach

  • The leader seeks change using a consensus approach.


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Normative–Re-educative

  • Group activities are initiated to bring about changes in the norms of the group through changes in attitudes, values, skills, and relationships.

Change is made by the group.


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Power–CoerciveUsing the Leader’s Power Base

  • The leader uses his/her power to bring about the desired change.


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Fullan’s Change Agentry Theory

Building Change Capacity


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Fullan’s Change Agentry Theory

  • The leader establishes readiness for change by identifying and creating four leadership capacities.

  • These leadership capacities must be compatible with four organizational capacities.


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Leadership Capacities

  • Personal vision

  • Inquiry

  • Mastery

  • Collaboration


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Organizational Counterparts

  • Shared vision building

  • Organizational structure

  • Norms and practices of inquiry

  • Organizational development


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Shared Vision

  • Every individual in the organization has a vision, and that vision causes each individual to raise questions about his/her role in the change process and to take a stand for a preferred future.


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Inquiry

  • Individuals internalize norms, habits, and techniques for continuous learning. The individual continuously checks, views, and assesses the initial mental map to make sure it fits.


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Mastery

  • Individuals clarify what is important and clearly see current reality.


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Collaboration

  • Forming productive mentoring and peer relationships, team building, and developing partnerships


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The Purpose of Change in Schools

Instructional Improvement


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The Purpose of Change in Schools

  • The primary purpose for change in schools is to improve the instructional program.


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Instructional Change

  • Instructional change should:

    • Involve stakeholders.

    • Make use of data.

    • Involve an assessment of current materials.

    • Make use of structured pupil and program evaluations.


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References

  • Chin, R., & Benne, K. D. (1969). General strategies for effective change

    in human systems. In W. G. Bennis, K. D. Benne, & R. Chin (eds.),

    The planning of change (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart &

    Winston.

  • Conley, D. T. (1997). Roadmaps to restructuring: Charting the

    course of change in American education. Eugene: University

    of Oregon (ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational

    Management).

  • Fullan, M. (1999). Change force: The sequel. New York: Falmer Press

  • Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social sciences. New York: Harper &

    Row.

  • Schmidt, W., & Finnigan, J. (1992). The race for the finish line: America’s

    quest for total quality. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass


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