The change process
1 / 49

The Change Process - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

The Change Process. The Change Process for Schools, Organizations, and Individuals. Change. Making Change Meaningful. Developed from the Contents of Reginald Leon Green’s. Practicing the Art of Leadership: A Problem-based Approach to Implementing the ISLLC Standards Chapter 7.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Change Process' - mingan

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The change process l.jpg

The Change Process

The Change Process for Schools, Organizations, and Individuals

Change l.jpg

Making Change Meaningful

Developed from the contents of reginald leon green s l.jpg
Developed from the Contents of Reginald Leon Green’s

Practicing the Art of Leadership: A Problem-based Approach to Implementing

the ISLLC Standards

Chapter 7

The concept of change l.jpg
The Concept of Change

  • Change is a process, not an event. It can be planned or unplanned and can be influenced by forces inside and outside of the schoolhouse.

Factors affecting the change process l.jpg
Factors Affecting the Change Process

  • Capacity for change

  • Forces that positively influence change

  • Forces that negatively influence change

  • Theories that inform change

Steps in the change process l.jpg
Steps in the Change Process

  • Establishing the vision

  • Determining the state of existing programs

  • Identifying a process that can be

    used to achieve the vision

Slide7 l.jpg

The Change Process



Discrepancy Analysis

State of Current Reality

Classifying the change l.jpg
Classifying the Change

  • Magnitude of the change

  • Degree of difficulty in making the change

Classifying the change9 l.jpg
Classifying the Change

  • First-order or continuous change

  • Second-order or discontinuous change

First order or continuous change l.jpg
First-order or Continuous Change

  • Change occurs without a disruption to the system. The system remains stable, and the equilibrium is maintained.

Second order or discontinuous change l.jpg
Second-order or Discontinuous Change

  • The equilibrium of the system is disrupted as the fundamental properties of the system are changed.

Change capacity l.jpg

Change Capacity

Readiness for the desired change

The capacity for change l.jpg
The Capacity for Change

  • The level of dissatisfaction the stakeholders are experiencing with current conditions

  • The short and long term costs

  • The extent to which individuals understand the vision to be achieved by the change

The capacity for change14 l.jpg
The Capacity for Change

  • The consequences of the change

  • The degree of difficulty in making the change

The capacity for change15 l.jpg
The Capacity for Change

  • For the school leader to make change that is effective and sustained, producing the least amount of conflict, the school must have a capacity for change.

The capacity for change16 l.jpg
The Capacity for Change

  • If the capacity for the desired change is absent, the leader can build capacity.

Building a capacity for change l.jpg
Building a Capacity for Change

  • Establish effective lines of communication.

  • Secure community support.

  • Acquire support for the new program concept.

  • Drive fear out of the schoolhouse.

Building a capacity for change18 l.jpg
Building A Capacity For Change

  • Work out bargaining agreements.

  • Acquire necessary approval from all agencies.

  • Identify sources of needed resources.

  • Become knowledgeable of effective change strategies.

Change theories and strategies l.jpg

Change Theories and Strategies

Informing Capacity Building

Change theories and strategies20 l.jpg
Change Theories and Strategies

  • Force Field Analysis

  • Empirical-rational Strategy

  • Normative-re-educative Strategy

  • The Power-Coercive Strategy

Change theories and strategies21 l.jpg
Change Theories and Strategies

  • Change Agentry

  • Participatory Change

  • Data-Driven Change

Force field analysis l.jpg

Force Field Analysis

Assessing the environment in which the change is to occur

Force field analysis23 l.jpg
Force Field Analysis

  • The environment in which change occurs contains a force field.

Force field analysis24 l.jpg
Force Field Analysis

  • Driving Forces

  • Restraining Forces

Driving forces l.jpg
Driving Forces

  • Driving forces move one toward the desired change.

Desired Change

Restraining forces l.jpg
Restraining Forces

  • Restraining forces resist the desired change, inhibiting its attainment.

Desired Change

A state of equilibrium l.jpg
A State of Equilibrium

  • People are viewed as constantly seeking a balance between the power of the two forces, which allows the status quo to be maintained in a frozen state of existence.

A state of equilibrium28 l.jpg
A State of Equilibrium

  • When one of the forces is substantially altered, reflecting a change in the power status of the other, the state of equilibrium is “unfrozen,” and there is a break in the status quo.

Driving forces29 l.jpg
Driving Forces


Restraining Forces

Restraining forces30 l.jpg
Restraining Forces


Driving Forces

Restraining Forces

Slide31 l.jpg

Reducing the Amount of Conflict

Driving Forces

Restraining Forces


Change strategies l.jpg

Change Strategies




Empirical rational a non coercive approach l.jpg
Empirical–RationalA Non-coercive Approach

  • The leader assembles and presents the necessary information regarding the desired change.

Empirical rational l.jpg

  • The group selects the action suggested by the data.

Theory Y

Normative re educative a consensus approach l.jpg
Normative–Re-educativeA Consensus Approach

  • The leader seeks change using a consensus approach.

Normative re educative l.jpg

  • Group activities are initiated to bring about changes in the norms of the group through changes in attitudes, values, skills, and relationships.

Change is made by the group.

Power coercive using the leader s power base l.jpg
Power–CoerciveUsing the Leader’s Power Base

  • The leader uses his/her power to bring about the desired change.

Fullan s change agentry theory l.jpg

Fullan’s Change Agentry Theory

Building Change Capacity

Fullan s change agentry theory39 l.jpg
Fullan’s Change Agentry Theory

  • The leader establishes readiness for change by identifying and creating four leadership capacities.

  • These leadership capacities must be compatible with four organizational capacities.

Leadership capacities l.jpg
Leadership Capacities

  • Personal vision

  • Inquiry

  • Mastery

  • Collaboration

Organizational counterparts l.jpg
Organizational Counterparts

  • Shared vision building

  • Organizational structure

  • Norms and practices of inquiry

  • Organizational development

Shared vision l.jpg
Shared Vision

  • Every individual in the organization has a vision, and that vision causes each individual to raise questions about his/her role in the change process and to take a stand for a preferred future.

Inquiry l.jpg

  • Individuals internalize norms, habits, and techniques for continuous learning. The individual continuously checks, views, and assesses the initial mental map to make sure it fits.

Mastery l.jpg

  • Individuals clarify what is important and clearly see current reality.

Collaboration l.jpg

  • Forming productive mentoring and peer relationships, team building, and developing partnerships

The purpose of change in schools l.jpg

The Purpose of Change in Schools

Instructional Improvement

The purpose of change in schools47 l.jpg
The Purpose of Change in Schools

  • The primary purpose for change in schools is to improve the instructional program.

Instructional change l.jpg
Instructional Change

  • Instructional change should:

    • Involve stakeholders.

    • Make use of data.

    • Involve an assessment of current materials.

    • Make use of structured pupil and program evaluations.

References l.jpg

  • Chin, R., & Benne, K. D. (1969). General strategies for effective change

    in human systems. In W. G. Bennis, K. D. Benne, & R. Chin (eds.),

    The planning of change (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart &


  • Conley, D. T. (1997). Roadmaps to restructuring: Charting the

    course of change in American education. Eugene: University

    of Oregon (ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational


  • Fullan, M. (1999). Change force: The sequel. New York: Falmer Press

  • Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social sciences. New York: Harper &


  • Schmidt, W., & Finnigan, J. (1992). The race for the finish line: America’s

    quest for total quality. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass