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Blood Types. A B AB O. Four major types of blood . A, B, AB, and O . Inherited from parents. Determined by presence or absence of an ANTIGEN on the surface of the red blood cell. Universal Donor O. Antigens. Blood protein Located on the surface of the red blood cell.

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blood types

Blood Types

A B AB O

slide2
Four major types of blood .
  • A, B, AB, and O.
  • Inherited from parents.
  • Determined by presence or absence of an ANTIGEN on the surface of the red blood cell
antigens

Universal DonorO

Antigens
  • Blood protein
  • Located on the surface of the red blood cell.
  • Either the person has it or doesn’t have on the blood cell.
  • Someone with type A blood have the A antigen, Someone with type B blood have the B antigen, type AB has both A and B antigen, and type O has neither of the antigens

Universal Recipient AB

antibody a protein in the plasma that will inactivate a foreign substance that enters the body
Antibody – a protein in the plasma that will inactivate a foreign substance that enters the body

Punnet

t square

  • Someone with type A blood has b antibodies
  • Someone with type B blood has a antibodies
  • Someone with type AB blood has no antibodies
  • Someone with type O blood has a and b antibodies.
red cells also may contain rh factor
Red Cells Also may Contain Rh factor
  • If you have it, you’re Rh +
  • If you don’t, you’re Rh –
  • When an Rh- mother is pregnant with an Rh+ baby, the baby’s blood (usually during delivery) can mix with the mom’s blood, causing the mom’s blood to make anti Rh antibodies.
slide6
If the mom gets pregnant again with another Rh+ positive baby, her anti Rh antibodies will attack the baby’s blood, causing Erythroblastosis Fetalis
  • RHO Gam will destroy any baby blood cells in the mom, and her immune system won’t produce antibodies.
  • Cord blood has immunity producing stem cells, is easy to transplant, and does not cause rejection That is why research is being done on umbilical cord blood.
disorder of the blood
Anemia

Deficiency in number or % of red blood cells

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Usually in women, children and adolescents

Deficiency of iron in the diet causing insufficient hemoglobin synthesis

Treat with iron supplements and green, leafy vegetables

Disorder of the Blood…
slide8
Aplastic Anemia

Bone marrow does not produce enough red and white blood cells

Caused by drugs or radiation therapy

  • Polycythemia
  • Too many red blood cells are formed.
  • May be a temporary condition that occurs at high altitude.
sickle cell anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia

Chronic blood disease inherited from both parents

Causes the red cells to form in abnormal sickle shape

Sickle cells break easily and carry less oxygen

Occurs primarily in African Americans

Treatment – blood transfusion

slide10
Embolism
  • Air, blood clot , cancer cells, fat, etc. that is carried by the bloodstream until it reaches an artery too small for passage
  • Also known as a “moving blood clot”
slide11
Thrombosis
  • The formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel
  • The blood clot is a THROMBUS
slide12
Hematoma
  • Localized clotted mass of blood found in an organ tissue or space.
  • Caused by an injury that can cause a blood vessel to rupture.
hemophilia
Hemophilia
  • Hereditary
  • Missing clotting factor
  • Blood clots slow or abnormally
  • Sex linked – transmitted genetically from mothers to sons
  • Treat with missing clotting factor, avoid trauma.
slide14
Thrombocytopenia

Not enough platelets

Blood will not clot properly

Leukemia

Malignant condition

Overproduction of immature white blood cells

Research on cord blood.

blood typing game
Blood Typing Game
  • http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/landsteiner/index.html
test your gray matter
Test Your Gray Matter…

AB

Cord blood has immunity producing stem cells, is easy to transplant, and does not cause rejection

He/she would develop Rh antibodies

Antigen

An Rh negative mother

White blood cell count is low

Erthroblastosis fetalis

Abcess

slide17

Anemia

Sickle cell anemia

Hemophilia